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Author Ludtke, L.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleep, disruption and the ‘nightmare of total illumination’ in late nineteenth and early twentieth-century dystopian fiction Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Interface Focus Abbreviated Journal Interface Focus.  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages (down) 20190130  
  Keywords Literature; Society; History  
  Abstract This article addresses the charge that the introduction of the electric light in the late nineteenth century increased disruptions to the human body's biological processes and interfered with the oscillating sleeping–waking cycle. By considering the nineteenth century research into the factors that motivate and disrupt sleep in concert with contemporary discussions of the physiology of street lighting, this article exposes how social and political forces shaped the impact of artificial light on sleep and, more perniciously, on bodily autonomy. As a close reading of artificial light in three influential dystopian novels building on these historical contexts demonstrates, dystopian fiction challenges the commonplace assumption that the advent of the electric light, or of widespread street lighting in public urban spaces, posed an immediate or inherent threat to sleep. Beginning with H. G. Wells's The Sleeper Awakes (1899), in which the eponymous sleeper emerges from a cataleptic trance into a future in which electric light and power are used to control the populace, representations of artificial light in early dystopian fiction of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries depict a nightmare of total illumination in which the state exerted its control over the individual. In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932), constant artificial illumination plays a vital role in the chemical and behavioural conditioning undergone by individuals in a post-Fordian world. George Orwell intensifies this relationship between light and individual autonomy in Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), where access to electric current (and thus light) is limited at certain times of the day, brownouts and electrical rationing occur intermittently, and total illumination is used to torture and reprogram individuals believed to have betrayed Big Brother.  
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  ISSN 2042-8898 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2888  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Batra, T.; Malik, I.; Prabhat, A.; Bhardwaj, S.K.; Kumar, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleep in unnatural times: illuminated night negatively affects sleep and associated hypothalamic gene expressions in diurnal zebra finches Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 287 Issue 1928 Pages (down) 20192952  
  Keywords Animals; bird; dim light at night; gene expression; hypothalamus; sleep; zebra finch  
  Abstract We investigated the effects of exposure at ecologically relevant levels of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep and the 24 h hypothalamic expression pattern of genes involved in the circadian timing (per2, bmal1, reverb-beta, cry1, ror-alpha, clock) and sleep regulatory pathways (cytokines: tlr4, tnf-alpha, il-1beta, nos; Ca(2+)-dependent pathway: camk2, sik3, nr3a; cholinergic receptor, achm3) in diurnal female zebra finches. Birds were exposed to 12 h light (150 lux) coupled with 12 h of absolute darkness or of 5 lux dim light for three weeks. dLAN fragmented the nocturnal sleep in reduced bouts, and caused sleep loss as evidenced by reduced plasma oxalate levels. Under dLAN, the 24 h rhythm of per2, but not bmal1 or reverb-beta, showed a reduced amplitude and altered peak expression time; however, clock, ror-alpha and cry1 expressions showed an abolition of the 24 h rhythm. Decreased tlr4, il-1beta and nos, and the lack of diurnal difference in achm3 messenger RNA levels suggested an attenuated inhibition of the arousal system (hence, awake state promotion) under dLAN. Similarly, changes in camk2, sik3 and nr3a expressions suggested dLAN-effects on Ca(2+)-dependent sleep-inducing pathways. These results demonstrate dLAN-induced negative effects on sleep and associated hypothalamic molecular pathways, and provide insights into health risks of illuminated night exposures to diurnal animals.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32517617 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2995  
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Author Elgert, C.; Hopkins, J.; Kaitala, A.; Candolin, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reproduction under light pollution: maladaptive response to spatial variation in artificial light in a glow-worm Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. B.  
  Volume 287 Issue 1931 Pages (down) 20200806  
  Keywords Animals; glow-worms; Lampyris noctiluca; insects; maladaptive response; reproduction  
  Abstract The amount of artificial light at night is growing worldwide, impacting the behaviour of nocturnal organisms. Yet, we know little about the consequences of these behavioural responses for individual fitness and population viability. We investigated if females of the common glow-worm Lampyris noctiluca—which glow in the night to attract males—mitigate negative effects of artificial light on mate attraction by adjusting the timing and location of glowing to spatial variation in light conditions. We found females do not move away from light when exposed to a gradient of artificial light, but delay or even refrain from glowing. Further, we demonstrate that this response is maladaptive, as our field study showed that staying still when exposed to artificial light from a simulated streetlight decreases mate attraction success, while moving only a short distance from the light source can markedly improve mate attraction. These results indicate that glow-worms are unable to respond to spatial variation in artificial light, which may be a factor in their global decline. Consequently, our results support the hypothesis that animals often lack adaptive behavioural responses to anthropogenic environmental changes and underlines the importance of considering behavioural responses when investigating the effects of human activities on wildlife.  
  Address Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, 00014 Helsinki, Finland; christina.elgert(at)helsinki.fi  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3049  
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Author Zangeneh, P.; Hamledari, H.; McCabe, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying Remoteness for Risk and Resilience Assessment Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering Abbreviated Journal J. Comput. Civ. Eng.  
  Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages (down) 04020026  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Remoteness has a crucial role in risk assessments of megaprojects, resilience assessments of communities and infrastructure, and a wide range of public policymaking. The existing measures of remoteness require an extensive amount of population census and of road and infrastructure network data, and often are limited to narrow scopes. This paper presents a methodology to quantify remoteness using nighttime satellite imagery. The light clusters of nighttime satellite imagery are direct yet unintended consequences of human settled populations and urbanization; therefore, the absence of illuminated clusters is considered as evidence of remoteness. The proposed nighttime remoteness index (NIRI) conceptualizes the remoteness based on the distribution of nighttime lights within radii of up to 1,000 km. A predictive model was created using machine learning techniques such as multivariate adaptive regression splines and support vector machines regressions to establish a reliable and accurate link between nighttime lights and the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). The model was used to establish NIRI for the United States and Canada, and in different years. The index was compared with the Canadian remoteness indexes published by Statistics Canada.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0887-3801 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2937  
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Author Liu, J.; Cai, J.; Lin, S.; Zhao, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Analysis of Factors Affecting a Driver’s Driving Speed Selection in Low Illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Advanced Transportation Abbreviated Journal Journal of Advanced Transportation  
  Volume 2020 Issue Pages (down) Article ID 2817801  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract To better understand a driver’s driving speed selection behaviour in low illumination, a self-designed questionnaire was applied to investigate driving ability in low illumination, and the influencing factors of low-illumination driving speed selection behaviour were discussed from the driver’s perspective. The reliability and validity of 243 questionnaires were tested, and multiple linear regression was used to analyse the comprehensive influence of demographic variables, driving speed in a low-illumination environment with street lights and driving ability on speed selection behaviour in low illumination without street lights. Pearson’s correlation test showed that there was no correlation among age, education, accidents in the past 3 years, and speed selection behaviour in low illumination, but gender, driving experience, number of night-driving days per week, and average annual mileage were significantly correlated with speed selection behaviour. In a low-illumination environment, driving ability has a significant influence on a driver’s speed selection behaviour. Technical driving ability under low-illumination conditions of street lights has the greatest influence on speed selection behaviour on a road with a speed limit of 120 km/h (β = 0.51). Risk perception ability has a significant negative impact on speed selection behaviour on roads with speed limits of 80 km/h and 120 km/h (β = −0.25 and β = −0.34, respectively). Driving speed in night-driving environment with street lights also has a positive influence on speed selection behaviour in low illumination (β = 0.61; β = 0.28; β = 0.37).  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0197-6729 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2913  
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