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Author James, P.; Bertrand, K.A.; Hart, J.E.; Schernhammer, E.S.; Tamimi, R.M.; Laden, F.
Title Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses' Health Study II Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect
Volume 125 Issue 8 Pages 087010
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort. METHODS: We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination at approximately 1 km(2) scale for each residence during follow-up. Incident invasive breast cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for anthropometric, reproductive, lifestyle, and socioeconomic risk factors. RESULTS: Over 2,187,425 person-years, we identified 3,549 incident breast cancer cases. Based on a fully adjusted model, the estimated HR for incident breast cancer with an interquartile range (IQR) (31.6 nW/cm(2)/sr) increase in cumulative average outdoor LAN was 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.11). An association between LAN and breast cancer appeared to be limited to women who were premenopausal at the time of a case [HR=1.07 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.14) based on 1,973 cases vs. HR=1.00 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.09) based on 1,172 cases in postmenopausal women; p-interaction=0.08]. The LAN-breast cancer association was observed only in past and current smokers at the end of follow-up [HR=1.00 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.07) based on 2,215 cases in never smokers; HR=1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) based on 1,034 cases in past smokers vs. HR=1.21 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.37) for 300 cases in current smokers; p-interaction=0.08]. CONCLUSIONS: Although further work is required to confirm our results and to clarify potential mechanisms, our findings suggest that exposure to residential outdoor light at night may contribute to invasive breast cancer risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP935.
Address Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28886600; PMCID:PMC5783660 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1886
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Author Rahman, S.A.; St Hilaire, M.A.; Gronfier, C.; Chang, A.-M.; Santhi, N.; Czeisler, C.A.; Klerman, E.B.; Lockley, S.W.
Title Functional decoupling of melatonin suppression and circadian phase resetting in humans Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume 596 Issue 11 Pages 2147-2157
Keywords Human Health
Abstract KEY POINTS: There is assumed to be a monotonic association between melatonin suppression and circadian phase resetting induced by light exposure. We tested the association between melatonin suppression and phase resetting in humans. Sixteen young healthy participants received nocturnal bright light ( approximately 9500 lux) exposure of continuous or intermittent patterns, and different durations ranging from 12 min to 6.5 h. Intermittent exposure patterns showed significant phase shifts with disproportionately less melatonin suppression. Each and every bright light stimulus in an intermittent exposure pattern induced a similar degree of melatonin suppression, but did not appear to cause an equal magnitude of phase shift. These results suggest that phase shifts and melatonin suppression are functionally independent such that one cannot be used as a proxy measure of the other. ABSTRACT: Continuous experimental light exposures show that, in general, the conditions that produce greater melatonin suppression also produce greater phase shift, leading to the assumption that one can be used as a proxy for the other. We tested this association in 16 healthy individuals who participated in a 9-day inpatient protocol by assessing melatonin suppression and phase resetting in response to a nocturnal light exposure (LE) of different patterns: (i) dim-light control (<3 lux; n = 6) or (ii) two 12-min intermittent bright light pulses (IBL) separated by 36 min of darkness ( approximately 9500 lux; n = 10). We compared these results with historical data from additional LE patterns: (i) dim-light control (<3 lux; n = 11); (ii) single continuous bright light exposure of 12 min (n = 9), 1.0 h (n = 10) or 6.5 h (n = 6); or (iii) an IBL light pattern consisting of six 15-min pulses with 1.0 h dim-light recovery intervals between them during a total of 6.5 h (n = 7). All light exposure groups had significantly greater phase-delay shifts than the dim-light control condition (P < 0.0001). While a monotonic association between melatonin suppression and circadian phase shift was observed, intermittent exposure patterns showed significant phase shifts with disproportionately less melatonin suppression. Each and every IBL stimulus induced a similar degree of melatonin suppression, but did not appear to cause an equal magnitude of phase shift. These results suggest unique specificities in how light-induced phase shifts and melatonin suppression are mediated such that one cannot be used as a proxy measure of the other.
Address Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29707782 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1887
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Author Nelson, R.J.; Chbeir, S.
Title Dark matters: effects of light at night on metabolism Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Nutr Soc
Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 223-229
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations. Indeed, disruption of naturally evolved light-dark cycles results in several physiological and behavioural changes with potentially serious implications for physiology, behaviour and mood. In this review, data from night-shift workers on their elevated risk for metabolic disorders, as well as data from animal studies will be discussed. Night-shift workers are predisposed to obesity and dysregulated metabolism that may result from disrupted circadian rhythms. Although studies in human subjects are correlative, animal studies have revealed several mechanisms through which light at night may exert its effects on metabolism by disrupting circadian rhythms that are associated with inflammation, both in the brain and in the periphery. Disruption of the typical timing of food intake is a key effect of light at night and subsequent metabolic dysregulation. Strategies to avoid the effects of light at night on body mass dysregulation should be pursued.
Address Department of Neuroscience,The Ohio State University,Columbus, OH 43210,USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-6651 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29747703 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1896
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Author McKenna, H.; van der Horst, G.T.J.; Reiss, I.; Martin, D.
Title Clinical chronobiology: a timely consideration in critical care medicine Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Critical Care (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Crit Care
Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 124
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract A fundamental aspect of human physiology is its cyclical nature over a 24-h period, a feature conserved across most life on Earth. Organisms compartmentalise processes with respect to time in order to promote survival, in a manner that mirrors the rotation of the planet and accompanying diurnal cycles of light and darkness. The influence of circadian rhythms can no longer be overlooked in clinical settings; this review provides intensivists with an up-to-date understanding of the burgeoning field of chronobiology, and suggests ways to incorporate these concepts into daily practice to improve patient outcomes. We outline the function of molecular clocks in remote tissues, which adjust cellular and global physiological function according to the time of day, and the potential clinical advantages to keeping in time with them. We highlight the consequences of “chronopathology”, when this harmony is lost, and the risk factors for this condition in critically ill patients. We introduce the concept of “chronofitness” as a new target in the treatment of critical illness: preserving the internal synchronisation of clocks in different tissues, as well as external synchronisation with the environment. We describe methods for monitoring circadian rhythms in a clinical setting, and how this technology may be used for identifying optimal time windows for interventions, or to alert the physician to a critical deterioration of circadian rhythmicity. We suggest a chronobiological approach to critical illness, involving multicomponent strategies to promote chronofitness (chronobundles), and further investment in the development of personalised, time-based treatment for critically ill patients.
Address Critical Care Unit, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK. daniel.martin@ucl.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1364-8535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29747699 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1897
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Author Rybnikova, N.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Population-level study links short-wavelength nighttime illumination with breast cancer incidence in a major metropolitan area Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1198-1208
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Several population-level studies revealed a positive association between breast cancer (BC) incidence and artificial light at night (ALAN) exposure. However, the effect of short-wavelength illumination, implicated by laboratory research and small-scale cohort studies as the main driving force behind BC-ALAN association, has not been supported by any population-level study carried out to date. We investigated a possible link between BC and ALAN of different subspectra using a multi-spectral year-2011 satellite image, taken from the International Space Station, and superimposing it with year-2013 BC incidence data available for the Great Haifa Metropolitan Area in Israel. The analysis was performed using both ordinary least square (OLS) and spatial dependency models, controlling for socioeconomic and locational attributes of the study area. The study revealed strong associations between BC and blue and green light subspectra (B = 0.336 +/- 0.001 and B = 0.335 +/- 0.002, respectively; p < 0.01), compared to a somewhat weaker effect for the red subspectrum (B = 0.056 +/- 0.001; p < 0.01). However, spatial dependency models, controlling for spatial autocorrelation of regression residuals, confirmed only a positive association between BC incidence and short-wavelength (blue) ALAN subspectrum (z = 2.462, p < 0.05) while reporting insignificant associations between BC and either green (z = 1.425, p > 0.1) or red (z = -0.604, p > 0.1) subspectra. The obtained result is in line with the results of laboratory- and small-scale cohort studies linking short-wavelength nighttime illumination with circadian disruption and melatonin suppression. The detected effect of blue lights on BC incidence may help to develop informed illumination policies aimed at minimizing the adverse health effects of ALAN exposure on human health.
Address a Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management , University of Haifa , Haifa , Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29768068 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1906
Permanent link to this record