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Author Kaplan, K.A.; Mashash, M.; Williams, R.; Batchelder, H.; Starr-Glass, L.; Zeitzer, J.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of Light Flashes vs Sham Therapy During Sleep With Adjunct Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Sleep Quality Among Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication JAMA Network Open Abbreviated Journal JAMA Netw Open  
  Volume 2 Issue 9 Pages (down) e1911944  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Importance: Owing to biological, behavioral, and societal factors, sleep duration in teenagers is often severely truncated, leading to pervasive sleep deprivation. Objective: To determine whether a novel intervention, using both light exposure during sleep and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), would increase total sleep time in teenagers by enabling them to go to sleep earlier than usual. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, conducted between November 1, 2013, and May 31, 2016, among 102 adolescents enrolled full-time in grades 9 to 12, who expressed difficulty going to bed earlier and waking up early enough, was composed of 2 phases. In phase 1, participants were assigned to receive either 3 weeks of light or sham therapy and were asked to try to go to sleep earlier. In phase 2, participants received 4 brief CBT sessions in addition to a modified light or sham therapy. All analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Interventions: Light therapy consisted of receiving a 3-millisecond light flash every 20 seconds during the final 3 hours of sleep (phase 1) or final 2 hours of sleep (phase 2). Sham therapy used an identical device, but delivered 1 minute of light pulses (appearing in 20-second intervals, for a total of 3 pulses) per hour during the final 3 hours of sleep (phase 1) or 2 hours of sleep (phase 2). Light therapy occurred every night during the 4-week intervention. Cognitive behavioral therapy consisted of four 50-minute in-person sessions once per week. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome measures included diary-based sleep times, momentary ratings of evening sleepiness, and subjective measures of sleepiness and sleep quality. Results: Among the 102 participants (54 female [52.9%]; mean [SD] age, 15.6 [1.1] years), 72 were enrolled in phase 1 and 30 were enrolled in phase 2. Mixed-effects models revealed that light therapy alone was inadequate in changing the timing of sleep. However, compared with sham therapy plus CBT alone, light therapy plus CBT significantly moved sleep onset a mean (SD) of 50.1 (27.5) minutes earlier and increased nightly total sleep time by a mean (SD) of 43.3 (35.0) minutes. Light therapy plus CBT also resulted in a 7-fold greater increase in bedtime compliance than that observed among participants receiving sham plus CBT (mean [SD], 2.21 [3.91] vs 0.29 [0.76]), as well as a mean 0.55-point increase in subjective evening sleepiness as compared with a mean 0.48-point decrease in participants receiving sham plus CBT as measured on a 7-point sleepiness scale. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that light exposure during sleep, in combination with a brief, motivation-focused CBT intervention, was able to consistently move bedtimes earlier and increase total sleep time in teenagers. This type of passive light intervention in teenagers may lead to novel therapeutic applications. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01406691.  
  Address Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2574-3805 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31553469 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2683  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Walch, O.J.; Cochran, A.; Forger, D.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A global quantification of “normal” sleep schedules using smartphone data Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Science Advances  
  Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages (down) e1501705-e1501705  
  Keywords Human Health; Sleep; *Circadian Rhythm; smartphone; society  
  Abstract The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country’s average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes “normal” sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1440  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kim, K.-M.; Kim, Y.-W.; Oh, S.-T.; Lim, J.-H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Development of a natural light reproduction system for maintaining the circadian rhythm Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Indoor and Built Environment Abbreviated Journal Indoor and Built Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 1420326X19855421  
  Keywords Lighting; Human Health; Circadian Rhythm; indoor light  
  Abstract Circadian rhythm is linked to sleep, arousal and human health overall, affecting body temperature and heart rate. A 24-h natural-light cycle provides optimum lighting environment for humans. However, as people increasingly stay indoors with artificial lighting, lacking periodic characteristics, imbalance in the circadian rhythm ensues. Previous lighting-related studies to resolve such problem partially provided the colour temperatures of natural light but failed to reproduce the 24-h periodic characteristics of it. This study proposes a natural light-reproducing system that provides the daylight cycle characteristics of natural light in order to maintain the circadian rhythm. Natural light was measured through an optical measurement equipment, while the characteristics (colour temperature and short-wavelength ratio) of natural light by season and time were analysed. Subsequently, the control indicator of seasonal and hourly lighting was extracted and applied to the light-emitting diode lighting to provide lighting service, executing a daylight cycle that reflects the characteristics of natural light. After the sunset, especially, the circadian rhythm was maintained by minimizing the short-wavelength ratio of the lighting while maintaining indoor illumination.  
  Address Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan-si, South Korea  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Sage Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1420-326X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2591  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pilorz, V.; Tam, S.K.E.; Hughes, S.; Pothecary, C.A.; Jagannath, A.; Hankins, M.W.; Bannerman, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.; Vyazovskiy, V.V.; Nolan, P.M.; Foster, R.G.; Peirson, S.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PLoS Biology Abbreviated Journal PLoS Biol  
  Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages (down) e1002482  
  Keywords Human health; melanopsin; sleep; circadian rhythm  
  Abstract Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4)-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm) causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm) produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin-deficient mice (Opn4-/-), resulting in enhanced sleep in response to blue light but delayed sleep induction in response to green or white light. We go on to show that blue light evokes higher Fos induction in the SCN compared to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), whereas green light produced greater responses in the VLPO. Collectively, our data demonstrates that nocturnal light exposure can have either an arousal- or sleep-promoting effect, and that these responses are melanopsin-mediated via different neural pathways with different spectral sensitivities. These findings raise important questions relating to how artificial light may alter behaviour in both the work and domestic setting.  
  Address Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute (SCNi), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford Molecular Pathology Institute, Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; stuart.peirson(at)eye.ox.ac.uk (SNP); russell.foster(at)eye.ox.ac.uk (RGF).  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher PLOS Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1544-9173 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27276063; PMCID:PMC4898879 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1490  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Escobar, C.; Salgado-Delgado, R.; Gonzalez-Guerra, E.; Tapia Osorio, A.; Angeles-Castellanos, M.; Buijs, R.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian disruption leads to loss of homeostasis and disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Sleep Disorders Abbreviated Journal Sleep Disord  
  Volume 2011 Issue Pages (down) 964510  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The relevance of a synchronized temporal order for adaptation and homeostasis is discussed in this review. We present evidence suggesting that an altered temporal order between the biological clock and external temporal signals leads to disease. Evidence mainly based on a rodent model of “night work” using forced activity during the sleep phase suggests that altered activity and feeding schedules, out of phase from the light/dark cycle, may be the main cause for the loss of circadian synchrony and disease. It is proposed that by avoiding food intake during sleep hours the circadian misalignment and adverse consequences can be prevented. This review does not attempt to present a thorough revision of the literature, but instead it aims to highlight the association between circadian disruption and disease with special emphasis on the contribution of feeding schedules in circadian synchrony.  
  Address Departamento de Anatomia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04360 Mexico City, DF, Mexico  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2090-3553 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23471148; PMCID:PMC3581131 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 745  
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