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Author Lee, S.-I.; Kinoshita, S.; Noguchi, A.; Eto, T.; Ohashi, M.; Nishimura, Y.; Maeda, K.; Motomura, Y.; Awata, Y.; Higuchi, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melatonin suppression during a simulated night shift in medium intensity light is increased by 10-minute breaks in dim light and decreased by 10-minute breaks in bright light Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (up) in press  
  Keywords Human Health; Humans; intermittent light at night exposure; light adaptation; melatonin suppression; night shift work; performance; short duration; subjective sleepiness  
  Abstract Exposure to light at night results in disruption of endogenous circadian rhythmicity and/or suppression of pineal melatonin, which can consequently lead to acute or chronic adverse health problems. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to very dim light or very bright light for a short duration influences melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness, and performance during exposure to constant moderately bright light. Twenty-four healthy male university students were divided into two experimental groups: Half of them (mean age: 20.0 +/- 0.9 years) participated in an experiment for short-duration (10 min) light conditions of medium intensity light (430 lx, medium breaks) vs. very dim light (< 1 lx, dim breaks) and the other half (mean age: 21.3 +/- 2.5 years) participated in an experiment for short-duration light conditions of medium intensity light (430 lx, medium breaks) vs. very bright light (4700 lx, bright breaks). Each simulated night shift consisting of 5 sets (each including 50-minute night work and 10-minute break) was performed from 01:00 to 06:00 h. The subjects were exposed to medium intensity light (550 lx) during the night work. Each 10-minute break was conducted every hour from 02:00 to 06:00 h. Salivary melatonin concentrations were measured, subjective sleepiness was assessed, the psychomotor vigilance task was performed at hourly intervals from 21:00 h until the end of the experiment. Compared to melatonin suppression between 04:00 and 06:00 h in the condition of medium breaks, the condition of dim breaks significantly promoted melatonin suppression and the condition of bright breaks significantly diminished melatonin suppression. However, there was no remarkable effect of either dim breaks or bright breaks on subjective sleepiness and performance of the psychomotor vigilance task. Our findings suggest that periodic exposure to light for short durations during exposure to a constant light environment affects the sensitivity of pineal melatonin to constant light depending on the difference between light intensities in the two light conditions (i.e., short light exposure vs. constant light exposure). Also, our findings indicate that exposure to light of various intensities at night could be a factor influencing the light-induced melatonin suppression in real night work settings.  
  Address Department of Human Science, Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32326827 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2894  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hassan, M.; El‑Taieb, M.; Fares, N.; Fayed, H.; Toghan, R.; Ibrahim, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia exhibit lower serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels: Comparative effect of night‑light exposure with fertile males Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Abbreviated Journal Exp Ther Med  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (up) in press  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Melatonin is a darkness hormone secreted by the pineal gland, which serves a role in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (iOAT). The present study aimed to evaluate the seminal plasma and serum melatonin levels of 50 patients with iOAT and 50 normal fertile controls and the effects of exposure to light at night on semen parameters. Semen analyses were performed according to the World Health Organization 2010 guidelines. Measurements of serum and seminal plasma melatonin, serum TSH, FT3, FT4, free testosterone, prolactin, FSH and LH were performed using ELISA. The overall results revealed that the serum and seminal plasma levels of melatonin were lower in patients with iOAT compared with the control subjects (P=0.0004 and 0.01, respectively). Patients with iOAT who were exposed to light at night exhibited lower serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels compared with those who were not exposed to light at night (P<0.0001 and 0.02, respectively). Additionally, similar significant differences were identified in control subjects exposed to light at night when compared to non‑exposed controls. There was a significantly positive correlation between serum melatonin levels and sperm motility in the entire iOAT patient cohort (r=0.614; P<0.0001) and a significantly positive correlation between the serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in the non‑exposed iOAT patient subgroup (r=0.753; P<0.001). Thus, darkness and sleep at night may improve the semen parameters of patients with iOAT, as evidenced by the effects of light exposure at night on the serum and seminal plasma levels of melatonin and, consequently, on semen parameters.  
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  ISSN 1792-0981 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2907  
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Author Lai, K.Y.; Sarkar, C.; Ni, M.Y.; Gallacher, J.; Webster, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to light at night (LAN) and risk of obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environmental Research  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (up) in press  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Background

There is emerging evidence of the association between light at night (LAN) exposure and weight gain.

Objective

We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies on the association between LAN exposure and risk of obesity in human subjects.

Methods

Peer-reviewed observational studies were systematically searched from MEDLINE (EBSCO), Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO) and PubMed up to 24 December 2019. Random-effects models were developed to estimate the associations between LAN exposure and weight-related outcomes of overweight and obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio and waist-to-height-ratio. The I2 statistic was used to assess the degree of heterogeneity across studies. The National Toxicology Program’s Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) risk of bias rating tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guideline were respectively employed to assess the risk of bias and to appraise the quality of the generated evidence.

Results

A total of 12 studies (three with longitudinal and nine of cross-sectional design) published between 2003-2019 were included for systematic review, while seven of them fulfilling the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. A higher LAN exposure was significantly associated with 13% higher odds of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) (Summary Odds Ratio; SOR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.10-1.16) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 27.27%), and 22% higher odds of obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) (SOR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.07-1.38) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 85.96%). Stratifying analyses by the levels of measurement of LAN exposures (macro-, meso- and micro-levels) and time of LAN measurement (including before and while sleeping) consistently produced robust estimates, with higher exposure to LAN being positively associated with poorer weight outcomes. Assessment of risk of bias identified substantial detection bias for exposure, with over half of the pooled studies employing subjective LAN measures. The overall evidence of the association between LAN exposure and risk of obesity was rated as ‘moderate’ as per the GRADE guideline.

Conclusions

Exposure to LAN was reported to be a significant risk factor for overweight and obesity. Prospectively designed future studies with objectively measured multi-level LAN exposures and weight outcomes are required.
 
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  ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2916  
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Author Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya url  openurl
  Title Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 56 Issue Pages (up)  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Sleep is essential for rest, repair, well-being, and survival of the patient. Sleep quality varies in critically ill patients and is measured by patient's satisfaction of the sleep experience, integrating aspects of sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, quantity of sleep and the refreshment upon awakening. Altered sleep is a common problem experienced by patients in critical care units. This alterations may lead to physiological and psychological dysfunctions that may affect recovery. Critically ill patients frequently experience poor sleep, characterized by frequent disruptions and loss of circadian rhythms. This study investigated factors influencing the quality of sleep among critically ill patients in hospitals in Western Kenya. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used to examine these factors. A total of 142 patients above 18 years who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and those transferred from the ICU to the general ward during the study period were conveniently selected for participation in the study. For triangulation, 10 nurses who worked in the ICU also participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from patients while a checklist was used to observe nursing interventions. Descriptive statistical techniques used were frequencies and percentages, while chi-square was used with the p-value set at 0.05 to test the association between factors and quality of sleep. The study results showed that frequent, nursing care activities 96.5% (n=137) noise from ventilator alarms 83.1% (n=118), feeling thirsty 57.7% (n= 82) and pain 52.8% (n=75) were among the major factors influencing the quality of sleep in ICU. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed patient factors significantly associated with quality sleep were age p=.006 and marital status p=.02, environmental factors significantly affecting sleep were presence of light at night with a p <0.0001 and noise from alarms p=.01. Physiological factors included feeling of thirst and hunger (p=0.03). This study recommends optimal use of analgesics and sedatives for pain management, adequate fluid replacement and hydration, noise reduction strategies, including minimizing monitor and ventilator alarms, reducing staff and telephone conversations and use of ear plugs for patients in ICU. Further, nurses should implement clustered procedures to reduce disruption of sleep among critically ill patients.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2974  
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Author Xiao, Q.; James, P.; Breheny, P.; Jia, P.; Park, Y.; Zhang, D.; Fisher, J.A.; Ward, M.H.; Jones, R.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Outdoor light at night and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the NIH-AARP diet and health study Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication International Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Int J Cancer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (up)  
  Keywords Human Health; circadian disruption; outdoor light at night; postmenopausal breast cancer; prospective cohort  
  Abstract Circadian disruption may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. Previous studies reported relationships between outdoor light at night (LAN) and the breast cancer risk, but their findings are mixed. There is also a need to examine LAN and breast cancer incidence according to different individual and environmental characteristics to identify subpopulations at greater risk associated with LAN exposure. We studied residential outdoor LAN estimated from satellite imagery at baseline (1996) in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer incidence over ~16 years of follow-up in 186 981 postmenopausal women including 12 318 incident postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the relationship between quintiles of LAN and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, overall and by hormone receptor status and cancer stage. We found that when compared to women in the lowest quintile of baseline LAN, those in the highest quintile had a 10% increase in postmenopausal breast cancer risk (HR (95% CI), 1.10 (1.02, 1.18), P-trend, .002). The association appeared to be stronger for estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer (1.12 [1.02, 1.24], .007) than for ER-negative cancer (1.07 [0.85, 1.34], .66). Our findings also suggested that the relationship between LAN and breast cancer risk may differ by individual characteristics, such as smoking, alcohol drinking, sleep duration and BMI, and neighborhood environment. In conclusion, our study suggests that higher outdoor LAN exposure may be a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer.  
  Address Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0020-7136 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32488897 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2976  
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