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Author Hersh, C.; Sisti, J.; Richiutti, V.; Schernhammer, E. url  openurl
  Title The effects of sleep and light at night on melatonin in adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Hormones Abbreviated Journal Hormones  
  Volume Issue Pages (up)  
  Keywords Human Health; melatonin; circadian rhythm; 6-sulfatoxymelatonin; artificial light at night  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The circadian hormone melatonin has wide-reaching effects on human physiology. In adolescents, the impact of nighttime light exposure and other modifiable behavioral factors on melatonin levels is poorly understood.

DESIGN: We cross-sectionally examined the influence of nighttime behaviors on melatonin levels in 100 adolescents (average age: 15.7; 55 female, 45 male), who completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided a first morning urine sample to assay for urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) levels. We used mixed-effects regression models to test for differences in aMT6s levels by categories of covariates.

RESULTS: Self-reported sleep duration, ambient light levels during sleep, and use of electronics after turning off lights did not significantly predict aMT6s levels. Compared to those who reported weekend bedtimes before 11pm, urinary aMT6s levels were significantly lower among participants reporting weekend bedtimes after midnight (52.5 vs. 38.0 ng/mg creatinine, Ptrend=0.007). Sleep interruption also appeared to be significantly associated with lower urinary aMT6s levels, but only if lights were turned on during sleep interruption (43.0 ng/mg creatinine for participants with sleep interruption but not turning lights on, vs. 24.6 ng/mg creatinine for participants reporting that they turned on the light when their sleep was interrupted Pdifference=0.032).



CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that self-reported sleep-related behaviors have little to no effect on adolescent circadian systems, though larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.
 
  Address Julia Sisti, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Tel.: (201) 694-2077, E-mail: jss235@mail.harvard.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Greek Endocrine Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1215  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Kantermann, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does ambient light at night reduce total melatonin production? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Hormones Abbreviated Journal Hormones  
  Volume Issue Pages (up)  
  Keywords Human Health; melatonin; ambient lighting; indoor light; sleep; *Circadian Rhythm; chronotype  
  Abstract It was with great interest that we read the recent study by Hersh et al on the effects of sleep and light at night on melatonin in adolescents. Of particular interest was their focus on electronic use after “lights out”. The authors highlight the importance of understanding what effects this may have on sleep, citing a survey that showed that 72% of American 13-18 year olds regularly use a cellphone or computer before trying to go to sleep. In their study, Hersh et al1 did not observe a significant suppression in urinary morning melatonin (aMT6s) levels with respect to the use of electronic devices between lights off and sleep onset. Therefore, the authors conclude that “nighttime behaviors of adolescents by and large do not impact urinary melatonin levels”. Absence of evidence, however, is not the same as evidence of absence, and we believe that the authors’ conclusion is premature.  
  Address Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Telegraphenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany; kyba(at)gfz-potsdam.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Hellenic Endocrine Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1236  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Contin, M.A.; Benedetto, M.M.; Quinteros-Quintana, M.L.; Guido, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Eye (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Eye (Lond)  
  Volume Issue Pages (up)  
  Keywords Human Health; eye; visual system; light pollution; retina; Ophthalmology  
  Abstract Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.Eye advance online publication, 6 November 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.221.  
  Address Centro de Investigaciones en Quimica Biologica de Cordoba, (CIQUIBIC, UNC-CONICET), Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0950-222X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26541085 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1291  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sliney, D.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title What is light? The visible spectrum and beyond Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Eye (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Eye (Lond)  
  Volume Issue Pages (up)  
  Keywords Human Health; human vision; spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum; visible; *Ultraviolet Rays; light  
  Abstract In this International Year of Light, it is particularly appropriate to review the historical concept of what is light and the controversies surrounding the extent of the visible spectrum. Today we recognize that light possesses both a wave and particle nature. It is also clear that the limits of visibility really extend from about 310 nm in the ultraviolet (in youth) to about 1100 nm in the near-infrared, but depend very much on the radiance, that is, 'brightness' of the light source. The spectral content of artificial lighting are undergoing very significant changes in our lifetime, and the full biological implications of the spectral content of newer lighting technologies remain to be fully explored.  
  Address Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0950-222X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26768917 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1337  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Keshet-Sitton, A.; Or-Chen, K.; Huber, E.; Haim, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating a Risk for Breast Cancer: A Preliminary Ecological Study on the Association Between Streetlight and Breast Cancer Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Integrative Cancer Therapies Abbreviated Journal Integr Cancer Ther  
  Volume Issue Pages (up)  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) for elongating photophase is a new source of pollution. We examined the association between measured ALAN levels and breast cancer (BC) standard morbidity ratio (SMR) at a statistical area (SA) level in an urban environment. Sample size consisted of 266 new BC cases ages 35-74. Light measurements (lux) were performed in 11 SAs. A new calculated variable of morbidity per SA size (SMR35-74/km2) was correlated with the light variables per road length, using Pearson correlations (P < .05, 1-tailed). Looking for a light threshold, we correlated percentage of light points above SA light intensity median with SMR35-74/km2 SMR35-74/km2 was significantly and positively strongly correlated with mean, median, and standard-deviation (SD) light intensity per road length (r = .79, P < .01, R2 = .63; r = .77, P < .01, R2 = .59; and r = .79, P < .01, R2 = .63). Light threshold results demonstrate a marginally significant positive moderate correlation between percentage of points above 16.3 lux and SMR35-74/km2 (r = .48, P < .07; R2 = .23). In situ results support the hypothesis that outdoor ALAN illumination is associated with a higher BC-SMR in a specific area and age group. Moreover, we suggest an outdoor light threshold of approximately 16 lux as the minimal intensity to affect melatonin levels and BC morbidity. To the best of our knowledge, our attempt is the first to use this method and show such association between streetlight intensity and BC morbidity and therefore should be further developed.  
  Address University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1534-7354 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27899698 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1635  
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