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Author Griefahn, B,; Kretschmer, V.; Hölker, F. openurl 
  Title Chronobiologische und gesundheitsrelevante Wirkungen des Lichts auf den Menschen Type Book Chapter
  Year 2010 Publication LichtRegion. Positionen und Perspektiven im Ruhrgebiet. Essen: Klartext Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 69-80  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Köhler D, Walz M, Hochstadt S  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 855  
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Author Boivin, D.; James, F. openurl 
  Title Light treatment and circadian adaptation to shift work. Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Industrial Health Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 43 Issue Pages 34–48  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1002  
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Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Is Artificial Light at Night too much of a Good Thing? Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Clinical and Experimental Optometry Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 197–199  
  Keywords Human Health  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1015  
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Author Chang, A.-M.; Aeschbacha, D.; Duffy, J.F.; Czeislera, C.A. url  openurl
  Title Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal PNAS  
  Volume 112 Issue 4 Pages 1232–1237  
  Keywords Human Health; sleep; chronobiology; phase-shifting; digital media; electronics; melatonin; Circadian disruption  
  Abstract In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength–enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety.  
  Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1079  
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Author Middleton, B.; Arendt, J.; Stone, BM url  openurl
  Title Human circadian rhythms in constant dim light (8 lux) with knowledge of clock time Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Sleep Research Abbreviated Journal J. Sleep Res.  
  Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 69-76  
  Keywords Human Health; circadian rhythm; light/dark cycle; melatonin; entrainment; melatonin levels; 6-sulphatoxymelatonin  
  Abstract The light/dark (L/D) cycle is a major synchronizer of human circadian rhythms. In the absence of a strong L/D cycle, synchrony with 24 hours can nevertheless be maintained in a socially structured environment, as shown in Polar regions (Broadway et al. 1987) and by some blind subjects (Czeisler et al. 1995a). The relative contribution of other time cues to entrainment in dim light has not been fully explored. The present study investigated the behaviour of melatonin (assessed as 6-sulphatoxymelatonin); rectal temperature; activity and sleep (actigraphy and logs) in constant dim light (L/ L) with access to a digital clock. 6 normal healthy males were maintained as a group in partial temporal isolation with attenuated sound and ambient temperature for 21 days. All 6 subjects showed free-running periodicity for 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and 5/6 subjects for temperature, activity and sleep offset. The average period (tau) was 24.26 +/- 0.049, substantially shorter than in previous experiments with a self selected L/D cycle but similar to a recent study conducted in very dim light. One subject maintained a rigid sleep/wake cycle throughout whilst his 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm free-ran. Total sleep time, from actigraph data, did not change but sleep efficiency decreased during the experiment. The subjects did not show group synchronization. These results confirm previous data indicating the importance of the L/D cycle in human entrainment and underline the lesser role of social cues and knowledge of clock time. This particular approach will permit the administration of timed medication to sighted humans under free-running conditions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1098  
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