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Author Haim, A.; Zubidat, A.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night: melatonin as a mediator between the environment and epigenome Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 370 Issue (up) Pages 20140121  
  Keywords Human Health; melatonin; epigenetic modifications; epigenetics; epigenome; light pollution; breast cancer; oncogenesis; tumorigenesis; biomarkers  
  Abstract The adverse effects of excessive use of artificial light at night (ALAN) are becoming increasingly evident and associated with several health problems including cancer. Results of epidemiological studies revealed that the increase in breast cancer incidents co-distribute with ALAN worldwide. There is compiling evidence that suggests that melatonin suppression is linked to ALAN-induced cancer risks, but the specific genetic mechanism linking environmental exposure and the development of disease is not well known. Here we propose a possible genetic link between environmental exposure and tumorigenesis processes. We discuss evidence related to the relationship between epigenetic remodelling and oncogene expression. In breast cancer, enhanced global hypomethylation is expected in oncogenes, whereas in tumour suppressor genes local hypermethylation is recognized in the promoter CpG chains. A putative mechanism of action involving epigenetic modifications mediated by pineal melatonin is discussed in relation to cancer prevalence. Taking into account that ALAN-induced epigenetic modifications are reversible, early detection of cancer development is of great significance in the treatment of the disease. Therefore, new biomarkers for circadian disruption need to be developed to prevent ALAN damage.  
  Address The Israeli Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Chronobiology, Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel; ahaim@research.haifa.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1119  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Jones, T.M.; Durrant, J; Michaelides, E.B.; Green, M.C., M.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melatonin: a possible link between the presence of artificial light at night and reductions in biological fitness Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 370 Issue (up) Pages 20140122  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The mechanisms underpinning the ecological impacts of the presence of artificial night lighting remain elusive. One suspected underlying cause is that the presence of light at night (LAN) supresses nocturnal production of melatonin, a key driver of biological rhythm and a potent antioxidant with a proposed role in immune function. Here, we briefly review the evidence for melatonin as the link between LAN and changes in behaviour and physiology. We then present preliminary data supporting the potential for melatonin to act as a recovery agent mitigating the negative effects of LAN in an invertebrate. Adult crickets (Teleogryllus commodus), exposed to constant illumination, were provided with dietary melatonin (concentrations: 0, 10 or 100 µg ml−1) in their drinking water. We then compared survival, lifetime fecundity and, over a 4-week period, immune function (haemocyte concentration, lysozyme-like and phenoloxidase (PO) activity). Melatonin supplementation was able only partially to mitigate the detrimental effects of LAN: it did not improve survival or fecundity or PO activity, but it had a largely dose-dependent positive effect on haemocyte concentration and lysozyme-like activity. We discuss the implications of these relationships, as well as the usefulness of invertebrates as model species for future studies that explore the effects of LAN.  
  Address Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne, 3010 VIC, Australia; theresa@unimelb.edu.au  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1120  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Oh, J.H.; Yoo, H.; Park, H.K.; Do, Y.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Analysis of circadian properties and healthy levels of blue light from smartphones at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 5 Issue (up) Pages 11325  
  Keywords human health  
  Abstract This study proposes representative figures of merit for circadian and vision performance for healthy and efficient use of smartphone displays. The recently developed figures of merit for circadian luminous efficacy of radiation (CER) and circadian illuminance (CIL) related to human health and circadian rhythm were measured to compare three kinds of commercial smartphone displays. The CIL values for social network service (SNS) messenger screens from all three displays were higher than 41.3 biolux (blx) in a dark room at night, and the highest CIL value reached 50.9 blx. These CIL values corresponded to melatonin suppression values (MSVs) of 7.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Moreover, smartphone use in a bright room at night had much higher CIL and MSV values (58.7 ~ 105.2 blx and 15.4 ~ 36.1%, respectively). This study also analyzed the nonvisual and visual optical properties of the three smartphone displays while varying the distance between the screen and eye and controlling the brightness setting. Finally, a method to possibly attenuate the unhealthy effects of smartphone displays was proposed and investigated by decreasing the emitting wavelength of blue LEDs in a smartphone LCD backlight and subsequently reducing the circadian effect of the display.  
  Address Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702, Republic of Korea  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26085126 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1196  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hersh, C.; Sisti, J.; Richiutti, V.; Schernhammer, E. url  openurl
  Title The effects of sleep and light at night on melatonin in adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Hormones Abbreviated Journal Hormones  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Human Health; melatonin; circadian rhythm; 6-sulfatoxymelatonin; artificial light at night  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The circadian hormone melatonin has wide-reaching effects on human physiology. In adolescents, the impact of nighttime light exposure and other modifiable behavioral factors on melatonin levels is poorly understood.

DESIGN: We cross-sectionally examined the influence of nighttime behaviors on melatonin levels in 100 adolescents (average age: 15.7; 55 female, 45 male), who completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided a first morning urine sample to assay for urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) levels. We used mixed-effects regression models to test for differences in aMT6s levels by categories of covariates.

RESULTS: Self-reported sleep duration, ambient light levels during sleep, and use of electronics after turning off lights did not significantly predict aMT6s levels. Compared to those who reported weekend bedtimes before 11pm, urinary aMT6s levels were significantly lower among participants reporting weekend bedtimes after midnight (52.5 vs. 38.0 ng/mg creatinine, Ptrend=0.007). Sleep interruption also appeared to be significantly associated with lower urinary aMT6s levels, but only if lights were turned on during sleep interruption (43.0 ng/mg creatinine for participants with sleep interruption but not turning lights on, vs. 24.6 ng/mg creatinine for participants reporting that they turned on the light when their sleep was interrupted Pdifference=0.032).



CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that self-reported sleep-related behaviors have little to no effect on adolescent circadian systems, though larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.
 
  Address Julia Sisti, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Tel.: (201) 694-2077, E-mail: jss235@mail.harvard.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Greek Endocrine Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1215  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sasseville, A.; Martin, J.S.; Houle, J.; Hebert, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating the contribution of short wavelengths in the alerting effect of bright light Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 151 Issue (up) Pages 81-87  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract  
  Address Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en sante mentale de Quebec (CRIUSMQ)/Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address: marc.hebert@crulrg.ulaval.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26122037 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1220  
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