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Author Bhatti, P.; Mirick, D.K.; Davis, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Invited commentary: Shift work and cancer Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol  
  Volume 176 Issue 9 Pages 760-3; discussion 764-5  
  Keywords Human Health; Circadian Rhythm; Humans; Male; *Men's Health; Neoplasms/*epidemiology; Occupations/*statistics & numerical data; Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/*statistics & numerical data  
  Abstract In this issue of the Journal, Parent et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(9):751-759) report significant associations between night-shift work and risk of cancer at several sites among men. These findings not only address the need for shift-work studies that evaluate cancers other than breast and prostate cancer but also support the increasing concern that the negative effects of shift work may be broadly applicable to risk of many cancers via the direct oncostatic properties of melatonin. Studies of shift work have been limited by a lack of detailed data for determining which aspects of this multifaceted exposure may be associated with increased cancer risk. Additionally, the influence of individual-level characteristics, such as preference for daytime activity versus nighttime activity or chronotype, has not been considered. In moving forward, launching new cohort studies of shift work and cancer risk is the most tenable approach, though it will be limited by the years of follow-up required in order to accrue adequate numbers of cancer cases. Studies incorporating biomarkers of effect are useful for providing immediate information that can aid not only in identifying the underlying mechanisms of the shift-work-cancer association but also in interpreting existing epidemiologic data and informing the design of future epidemiologic studies of cancer risk.  
  Address Program in Epidemiology, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. pbhatti@fhcrc.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-9262 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23035018 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 507  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Blask, D.; Brainard, G.; Gibbons, R.; Lockley, S.; Stevens, R.; Motta, M. openurl 
  Title Light Pollution: Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting. Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Report 4 of the Council on Science and Public Health, American Medical Association. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 508  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Boivin, D.B.; Boudreau, P.; Tremblay, G.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Phototherapy and orange-tinted goggles for night-shift adaptation of police officers on patrol Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 29 Issue 5 Pages 629-640  
  Keywords Human Health; Adaptation, Physiological/*physiology; Adult; Attention/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Color; Darkness; *Eye Protective Devices/adverse effects; Female; Humans; Light; Male; Melatonin/analogs & derivatives/metabolism/urine; Phototherapy/*adverse effects; *Police; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Saliva/chemistry; Sleep/physiology; Work Schedule Tolerance/*physiology  
  Abstract The aim of the present combined field and laboratory study was to assess circadian entrainment in two groups of police officers working seven consecutive 8/8.5-h night shifts as part of a rotating schedule. Eight full-time police officers on patrol (mean age +/- SD: 29.8 +/- 6.5 yrs) were provided an intervention consisting of intermittent exposure to wide-spectrum bright light at night, orange-tinted goggles at sunrise, and maintenance of a regular sleep/darkness episode in the day. Orange-tinted goggles have been shown to block the melatonin-suppressing effect of light significantly more than neutral gray density goggles. Nine control group police officers (mean age +/- SD: 30.3 +/- 4.1 yrs) working the same schedule were enrolled. Police officers were studied before, after (in the laboratory), and during (ambulatory) a series of seven consecutive nights. Urine samples were collected at wake time and bedtime throughout the week of night work and during laboratory visits (1 x /3 h) preceding and following the work week to measure urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (UaMT6s) excretion rate. Subjective alertness was assessed at the start, middle, and end of night shifts. A 10-min psychomotor vigilance task was performed at the start and end of each shift. Both laboratory visits consisted of two 8-h sleep episodes based on the prior schedule. Saliva samples were collected 2 x /h during waking episodes to assay their melatonin content. Subjective alertness (3 x /h) and performance (1 x /2 h) were assessed during wake periods in the laboratory. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the progression of UaMt6s excreted during daytime sleep episodes at home, as well as psychomotor performance and subjective alertness during night shifts. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (factors: laboratory visit and group) were used to compare peak salivary melatonin and UaMT6s excretion rate in the laboratory. In both groups of police officers, the excretion rate of UaMT6s at home was higher during daytime sleep episodes at the end compared to the start of the work week (p < .001). This rate increased significantly more in the intervention than control group (p = .032). A significant phase delay of salivary melatonin was observed in both groups at the end of study (p = .009), although no significant between-group difference was reached. Reaction speed dropped, and subjective alertness decreased throughout the night shift in both groups (p < .001). Reaction speed decreased throughout the work week in the control group (p </= .021), whereas no difference was observed in the intervention group. Median reaction time was increased as of the 5th and 6th nights compared to the 2nd night in controls (p </= .003), whereas it remained stable in the intervention group. These observations indicate better physiological adaptation in the intervention group compared to the controls.  
  Address Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms , Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. diane.boivin@douglas.mcgill.ca  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22621360 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 509  
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Author Bray, M.S.; Young, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Chronobiological Effects on Obesity Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Current Obesity Reports Abbreviated Journal Curr Obes Rep  
  Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 9-15  
  Keywords Human Health; Chronobiological effects; Circadian; Gene; Molecular clock; Obesity; Rhythm; Shift work; Sleep; Transcription  
  Abstract The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between natural cycles of light/dark and altered patterns of sleep/wake and eating behavior associated with our “24-hour” lifestyle. An extensive research literature has established clear links between increased risk for obesity and both sleep deprivation and shift work, and our understanding of the consequences of such dyssynchrony at the molecular level is beginning to emerge. Studies linking alterations in cellular circadian clocks to metabolic dysfunction point to the increasing importance of chronobiology in obesity etiology.  
  Address Departments of Epidemiology and Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2162-4968 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23682347; PMCID:PMC3653336 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 510  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Chamorro, E.; Bonnin-Arias, C.; Perez-Carrasco, M.J.; Munoz de Luna, J.; Vazquez, D.; Sanchez-Ramos, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Photochemistry and Photobiology Abbreviated Journal Photochem Photobiol  
  Volume 89 Issue 2 Pages 468-473  
  Keywords Human Health; Apoptosis/*radiation effects; Biological Markers/metabolism; Caspases/metabolism; Cell Survival/radiation effects; DNA Damage; Epithelial Cells/cytology/metabolism/*radiation effects; Histones/metabolism; Humans; Light; Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/*radiation effects; Mitochondria/*radiation effects; Photoperiod; Primary Cell Culture; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology/metabolism/*radiation effects  
  Abstract Human visual system is exposed to high levels of natural and artificial lights of different spectra and intensities along lifetime. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the basic lighting components in screens of PCs, phones and TV sets; hence it is so important to know the implications of LED radiations on the human visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LEDs radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPEpiC). They were exposed to three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles, using blue-468 nm, green-525 nm, red-616 nm and white light. Cellular viability of HRPEpiC was evaluated by labeling all nuclei with DAPI; Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by H2DCFDA staining; mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by TMRM staining; DNA damage was determined by H2AX histone activation, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspases-3,-7 activation. It is shown that LED radiations decrease 75-99% cellular viability, and increase 66-89% cellular apoptosis. They also increase ROS production and DNA damage. Fluorescence intensity of apoptosis was 3.7% in nonirradiated cells and 88.8%, 86.1%, 83.9% and 65.5% in cells exposed to white, blue, green or red light, respectively. This study indicates three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles of exposure to LED lighting affect in vitro HRPEpiC.  
  Address Neuro-Computing and Neuro-Robotics Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. eva.chamorro@opt.ucm.es  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-8655 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22989198 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 511  
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