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Author Fleury, G.; Masis-Vargas, A.; Kalsbeek, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Metabolic Implications of Exposure to Light at Night: Lessons from Animal and Human Studies Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) Abbreviated Journal Obesity (Silver Spring)  
  Volume 28 Suppl 1 Issue Pages S18-S28  
  Keywords Review; Human Health; Animals; Obesity  
  Abstract Lately, the incidence of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes has shown a staggering increase. To prevent and treat these conditions, one must look at their etiology. As life on earth has evolved under the conditions of nature's 24-hour light/dark cycle, it seems likely that exposure to artificial light at night (LAN) would affect physiology. Indeed, ample evidence has shown that LAN impacts many metabolic parameters, at least partly via the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. This review focuses on the impact of chronic and acute effects of LAN of different wavelengths on locomotor activity, food intake, the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, melatonin, glucocorticoids, and glucose and lipid metabolism. While chronic LAN disturbs daily rhythms in these parameters, experiments using short-term LAN exposure also have shown acute negative effects in metabolically active peripheral tissues. Experiments using LAN of different wavelengths not only have indicated an important role for melanopsin, the photopigment found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, but also provided evidence that each wavelength may have a specific impact on energy metabolism. Importantly, exposure to LAN has been shown to impact glucose homeostasis also in humans and to be associated with an increased incidence of overweight, obesity, and atherosclerosis.  
  Address Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN), Amsterdam, the Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1930-7381 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32700826 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3079  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Foster, R.G.; Hughes, S.; Peirson, S.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian Photoentrainment in Mice and Humans Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Biology Abbreviated Journal Biology (Basel)  
  Volume 9 Issue 7 Pages  
  Keywords Review; Animals; Human Health; circadian; entrainment; human; melanopsin (OPN4); mouse; photoreceptor  
  Abstract Light around twilight provides the primary entrainment signal for circadian rhythms. Here we review the mechanisms and responses of the mouse and human circadian systems to light. Both utilize a network of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4). In both species action spectra and functional expression of OPN4 in vitro show that melanopsin has a lambdamax close to 480 nm. Anatomical findings demonstrate that there are multiple pRGC sub-types, with some evidence in mice, but little in humans, regarding their roles in regulating physiology and behavior. Studies in mice, non-human primates and humans, show that rods and cones project to and can modulate the light responses of pRGCs. Such an integration of signals enables the rods to detect dim light, the cones to detect higher light intensities and the integration of intermittent light exposure, whilst melanopsin measures bright light over extended periods of time. Although photoreceptor mechanisms are similar, sensitivity thresholds differ markedly between mice and humans. Mice can entrain to light at approximately 1 lux for a few minutes, whilst humans require light at high irradiance (>100's lux) and of a long duration (>30 min). The basis for this difference remains unclear. As our retinal light exposure is highly dynamic, and because photoreceptor interactions are complex and difficult to model, attempts to develop evidence-based lighting to enhance human circadian entrainment are very challenging. A way forward will be to define human circadian responses to artificial and natural light in the “real world” where light intensity, duration, spectral quality, time of day, light history and age can each be assessed.  
  Address Sleep & Circadian Neuroscience Institute (SCNi), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford Molecular Pathology Institute, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RF, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2079-7737 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32708259; PMCID:PMC7408241 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3082  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Touitou, Y.; Point, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects and mechanisms of action of light-emitting diodes on the human retina and internal clock Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 190 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Review; Human Health; Biological clock; Blue light; Electronic media; Endocrine disruptor; Environmental synchronizers; Light at night; Melatonin; Night work; Retinal phototoxicity; Shift work; Sleep disorder  
  Abstract White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) will likely become the most used lighting devices worldwide in the future because of their very low prices over the course of their long lifespans which can be up to several tens of thousands of hours. The expansion of LED use in both urban and domestic lighting has prompted questions regarding their possible health effects, because the light that they provide is potentially high in the harmful blue band (400-500nm) of the visible light spectrum. Research on the potential effects of LEDs and their blue band on human health has followed three main directions: 1) examining their retinal phototoxicity; 2) examining disruption of the internal clock, i.e., an out-of-sync clock, in shift workers and night workers, including the accompanying health issues, most concerningly an increased relative risk of cancer; and 3) examining risky, inappropriate late-night use of smartphones and consoles among children and adolescents. Here, we document the recognized or potential health issues associated with LED lighting together with their underlying mechanisms of action. There is so far no evidence that LED lighting is deleterious to human retina under normal use. However, exposure to artificial light at night is a new source of pollution because it affects the circadian clock. Blue-rich light, including cold white LEDs, should be considered a new endocrine disruptor, because it affects estrogen secretion and has unhealthful consequences in women, as demonstrated to occur via a complex mechanism.  
  Address Cooper Securite SAS, 63200, Riom, France  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32758719 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3091  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Torriglia, A.; Mascarelli, F.; Behar-Cohen, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title [New lighting technology and our eyes] Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Medecine Sciences : M/S Abbreviated Journal Med Sci (Paris)  
  Volume 36 Issue 8-9 Pages 769-773  
  Keywords Review; Human Health  
  Abstract The retina is the neurosensitive layer of the eye. In this tissue, photoreceptors convert light into nerve signals to be relayed to the brain. Despite retinal specialization in the treatment of light, excessive exposure can cause retinal damage, called retinal phototoxicity. In recent years, lighting devices rich in wavelengths of high energy (blue light) appeared, raising new concerns about retinal protection against light damage. We focus here on light-induced ocular diseases and the possible influence on visual health of new lighting technologies.

Dans la rétine, couche neurosensorielle de l’œil, les photorécepteurs transforment le signal lumineux en influx nerveux interprétable par le cerveau. Malgré sa spécialisation dans le traitement des signaux lumineux, la rétine peut subir des dommages, à la suite d’une exposition excessive à la lumière ; on parle alors de phototoxicité rétinienne. Ces dernières années, l’apparition de dispositifs d’éclairage riches en longueurs d’onde de forte énergie (ce que l’on nomme lumière bleue), remet le problème de la phototoxicité rétinienne à l’ordre du jour. Nous discutons des pathologies oculaires induites par la lumière et de la possible influence des nouvelles technologies d’éclairage sur notre santé visuelle.
 
  Address Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Inserm, Sorbonne Universite, USPC, universite de Paris Descartes, equipe << Physiopathologie des maladies oculaires : innovations therapeutiques >>, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, F-75006 Paris, France  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language French Summary Language Original Title Les nouveaux eclairages et nos yeux  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0767-0974 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32821054 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3097  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rea, M.S.; Nagare, R.; Figueiro, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Predictions of melatonin suppression during the early biological night and their implications for residential light exposures prior to sleeping Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 14114  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The magnitude of nocturnal melatonin suppression depends upon the spectrum, amount, and duration of light exposure. The functional relationship between melatonin suppression and the light spectrum and amount have been previously described. Only one duration-dependent parameter was needed to extend this functional relationship to predict nocturnal melatonin suppression during the early biological night from a variety of published studies. Those predictions suggest that ambient lighting commonly found in North American homes will not suppress melatonin for durations up to 3 h, whereas extended use of self-luminous displays in the home prior to sleep can.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY, 12180-3352, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32839489; PMCID:PMC7445277 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3098  
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