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Author Tabaka, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pilot Measurement of Illuminance in the Context of Light Pollution Performed with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 13 Pages 2124  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract This article presents the methodology and results of pilot field illuminance measurements using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The main goal of the study was to quantify the luminous flux emitted in the upper hemisphere (toward the sky) based on obtained measurement data. The luminous flux emitted toward the sky is the source of undesirable light pollution. For test purposes, a height-adjustable mobile park lantern was constructed, at the top of which any type of luminaire can be installed. In the pilot measurements, two real opal sphere-type luminaires were considered. The lantern was situated in an open area located away from a large city agglomeration. To determine the unusable luminous flux, illuminance was measured, placing the necessary measuring equipment on board a UAV. The measurements were supplemented with the registration of illuminance on the ground upon which the lantern was installed. Based on these data, the useful luminous flux was calculated. The findings show that UAVs may be successfully used for the assessment of the influence of lighting on the light pollution effect.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3040  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Li, X.; Levin, N.; Xie, J.; Li, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring hourly night-time light by an unmanned aerial vehicle and its implications to satellite remote sensing Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 247 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Skyglow; Instrumentation  
  Abstract Satellite-observed night-time light in urban areas has been widely used as an indicator for socioeconomic development and light pollution. Up to present, the diurnal dynamics of city light during the night, which are important to understand the nature of human activity and the underlying variables explaining night-time brightness, have hardly been investigated by remote sensing techniques due to limitation of the revisit time and spatial resolution of available satellites. In this study, we employed a consumer-grade unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to monitor city light in a study area located in Wuhan City, China, from 8:08 PM, April 15, 2019 to 5:08 AM, April 16, 2019, with an hourly temporal resolution. By using three ground-based Sky Quality Meters (SQMs), we found that the UAV-recorded light brightness was consistent with the ground luminous intensity measured by the SQMs in both the spatial (R2 = 0.72) and temporal dimensions (R2 > 0.94), and that the average city light brightness was consistent with the sky brightness in the temporal dimension (R2 = 0.98), indicating that UAV images can reliably monitor the city's night-time brightness. The temporal analysis showed that different locations had different patterns of temporal changes in their night-time brightness, implying that inter-calibration of two kinds of satellite images with different overpass times would be a challenge. Combining an urban function map of 18 classes and the hourly UAV images, we found that urban functions differed in their temporal light dynamics. For example, the outdoor sports field lost 97.28% of its measured brightness between 8: 08 PM – 4:05 AM, while an administrative building only lost 4.56%, and the entire study area lost 61.86% of its total brightness. Within our study area, the period between 9:06 PM and 10:05 PM was the period with largest amount of light loss. The spectral analysis we conducted showed that city light colors were different in some urban functions, with the major road being the reddest region at 8:08 PM and becoming even redder at 4:05 AM. This preliminary study indicates that UAVs are a good tool to investigate city light at night, and that city light is very complex in both of the temporal and spatial dimensions, requiring comprehensive investigation using more advanced UAV techniques, and emphasizing the need for geostationary platforms for night-time light sensors.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3014  
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Author de Meester, J.; Storch, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Optimized Performance Parameters for Nighttime Multispectral Satellite Imagery to Analyze Lightings in Urban Areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)  
  Volume 20 Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing; high spatial resolution; lighting parameter; lighting type classification; multispectral band optimization; nighttime remote sensing; satellite image simulation; urban area  
  Abstract Contrary to its daytime counterpart, nighttime visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR) satellite imagery is limited in both spectral and spatial resolution. Nevertheless, the relevance of such systems is unquestioned with applications to, e.g., examine urban areas, derive light pollution, and estimate energy consumption. To determine optimal spectral bands together with required radiometric and spatial resolution, at-sensor radiances are simulated based on combinations of lamp spectra with typical luminances according to lighting standards, surface reflectances, and radiative transfers for the consideration of atmospheric effects. Various band combinations are evaluated for their ability to differentiate between lighting types and to estimate the important lighting parameters: efficacy to produce visible light, percentage of emissions attributable to the blue part of the spectrum, and assessment of the perceived color of radiation sources. The selected bands are located in the green, blue, yellow-orange, near infrared, and red parts of the spectrum and include one panchromatic band. However, these nighttime bands tailored to artificial light emissions differ significantly from the typical daytime bands focusing on surface reflectances. Compared to existing or proposed nighttime or daytime satellites, the recommended characteristics improve, e.g., classification of lighting types by >10%. The simulations illustrate the feasible improvements in nocturnal VIS/NIR remote sensing which will lead to advanced applications.  
  Address German Aerospace Center (DLR), Earth Observation Center (EOC), Munchener Str. 20, 82234 Wessling, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32532117 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3006  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kolláth, Z.; Cool, A.; Jechow, A.; Kolláth, K.; Száz, D.; Tong, K.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Introducing the Dark Sky Unit for multi-spectral measurement of the night sky quality with commercial digital cameras Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 253 Issue Pages 107162  
  Keywords Skyglow; Instrumentation; Measurement; light pollution; Radiometry  
  Abstract Multi-spectral imaging radiometry of the night sky provides essential information on light pollution (skyglow) and sky quality. However, due to the different spectral sensitivity of the devices used for light pollution measurement, the comparison of different surveys is not always trivial. In addition to the differences between measurement approaches, there is a strong variation in natural sky radiance due to the changes of airglow. Thus, especially at dark locations, the classical measurement methods (such as Sky Quality Meters) fail to provide consistent results. In this paper, we show how to make better use of the multi-spectral capabilities of commercial digital cameras and show their application for airglow analysis. We further recommend a novel sky quality metric the ”Dark Sky Unit”, based on an easily usable and SI traceable unit. This unit is a natural choice for consistent, digital camera-based measurements. We also present our camera system calibration methodology for use with the introduced metrics.  
  Address ELTE BDPK, Szombathely, Department of Physics, Hungary; zkollath(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsever Place of Publication Elsevier Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2998  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bouroussis, C.A.; Topalis, F.V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of outdoor lighting installations and their impact on light pollution using unmanned aircraft systems – The concept of the drone-gonio-photometer Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 253 Issue Pages 107155  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Lighting  
  Abstract This paper presents the ongoing work of the lighting laboratory to develop a standardized method for the measurement of several types of lighting installations using unmanned aircraft systems. The technology of unmanned aircraft systems can incorporate multiple types of sensors and can be programmed to fly in predefined areas and routes in order to perform complex measurements with limited human intervention. This technology provides the freedom of measurements from several angular positions and altitudes in a fast, easy, accurate and repeatable way. The overall aim of this work is to assess the lighting installations, not only against the applicable lighting standards but also to investigate and reveal issues related to light pollution and obtrusive lighting. The latter are issues that in most cases are neglected due to the lack of standardized methods of calculation and measurement. Current assessment methods require illuminance or luminance measurements of horizontal and vertical surfaces generally from the ground. The proposed approach provides a holistic three-dimensional evaluation of the lighting installations beyond the common methods and geometries and opens the discussion for future update of the relevant standards on outdoor lighting. In the scope of this paper, several proof-of-concept cases are presented.  
  Address Lighting Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15780, Zografou, Athens, Greece; bouroussis(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2996  
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