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Author Bullough, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spectral Sensitivity Modeling and Nighttime Scene Brightness Perception Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Leukos Abbreviated Journal Leukos  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 11-17  
  Keywords Vision; human vision; Melanopsin; Outdoor Lighting; Scene brightness; Spectral sensitivity; visual psychophysics  
  Abstract Brightness perception under different light sources is an important visual response, because it is related to perceptions of safety. A growing number of studies have been conducted to assess perceptions of scene brightness under light sources differing in spectral content, including results consistent with a role of melanopsin-containing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in scene brightness. Data from recent studies of scene brightness perception at light levels experienced under nighttime driving conditions are used to compare different models of brightness perception. The data support a role of increased short-wavelength sensitivity for scene brightness perception and a provisional spectral sensitivity model that takes into account the possible influence of melanopsin-containing, intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells is suggested as a basis for further investigation. The implications of such a model on brightness perception under several light sources used in transportation lighting are described.  
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  ISSN 1550-2724 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1073  
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Author Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Gaston, Kevin J url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biologyology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages 1417-1423  
  Keywords animals; ecosystems; species interaction; human vision  
  Abstract Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachnid, insect, bird, reptile and mammal by producing different wavelength ranges of light to which they are visually sensitive. The proportion of the visually detectable region of the light spectrum emitted by each lamp was compared to provide an indication of how different technologies are likely to facilitate visually guided behaviours such as detecting objects in the environment. Compared to narrow spectrum lamps, broad spectrum technologies enable animals to detect objects that reflect light over more of the spectrum to which they are sensitive and, importantly, create greater disparities in this ability between major taxonomic groups. The introduction of broad spectrum street lamps could therefore alter the balance of species interactions in the artificially lit environment.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1584  
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Author Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D.; Brons, M.S. url  openurl
  Title Spectral considerations for outdoor lighting: Designing for perceived scene brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.  
  Volume 47 Issue 8 Pages 909-919  
  Keywords Public Safety; outdoor lighting; photopic; photopic illuminance; human vision; metrics; task lighting; parking lots  
  Abstract Photopic illuminance is the photometric metric used today for specifying parking lot lighting levels. The photopic luminous efficiency function does not represent the spectral sensitivity of the perceived scene brightness of parking lots. Sources with a greater proportion of short-wavelength radiation will be seen as brighter for the same photopic illuminance. Moreover, the psychological benefit of providing people with a sense of safety and security in a parking lot is better correlated with the perceived brightness of the parking lot than with its photopic illuminance. Because photopic illuminance is not predictive of the psychological benefit expected from the parking lot lighting system, electric energy will be unnecessarily wasted if specifications are based upon this metric. Specifying parking lot lighting with a benefit metric based upon perceived scene brightness could reduce electric power requirements as well as the amount of radiant energy reflecting from the pavement and escaping into the night sky. A method of equating brightness for different spectral power distributions is provided.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1074  
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Author Sliney, D.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title What is light? The visible spectrum and beyond Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Eye (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Eye (Lond)  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health; human vision; spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum; visible; *Ultraviolet Rays; light  
  Abstract In this International Year of Light, it is particularly appropriate to review the historical concept of what is light and the controversies surrounding the extent of the visible spectrum. Today we recognize that light possesses both a wave and particle nature. It is also clear that the limits of visibility really extend from about 310 nm in the ultraviolet (in youth) to about 1100 nm in the near-infrared, but depend very much on the radiance, that is, 'brightness' of the light source. The spectral content of artificial lighting are undergoing very significant changes in our lifetime, and the full biological implications of the spectral content of newer lighting technologies remain to be fully explored.  
  Address Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0950-222X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:26768917 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1337  
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Author Sun, C.; Lian, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sensitive physiological indicators for human visual comfort evaluation Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.  
  Volume 48 Issue 6 Pages 726-741  
  Keywords Human health; human vision; Melatonin  
  Abstract Three physiological factors (melatonin levels, tear mucus ferning quality and degree of asthenopia) were examined for their relationship to visual comfort. A lighting environment was created where the illuminance, illuminance uniformity and correlated colour temperature could be adjusted. A three-factor and three-level orthogonal experiment with 24 subjects was designed and carried out. The results indicated that the selected environmental factors had different impacts on the physiological factors. With the illuminance increasing, the melatonin level decreased significantly and the tear mucus ferning quality was improved. However, there is no general influence of illuminance uniformity and correlated colour temperature on the physiological parameters, only differential effects among the three levels were found.  
  Address Zhiwei Lian, Department of Architecture, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, PR China; zwlian(at)sjtu.edu.cn  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1333  
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