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Author Pun, C.S.J.; So, C.W.; Leung, W.Y.; Wong, C.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Contributions of artificial lighting sources on light pollution in Hong Kong measured through a night sky brightness monitoring network Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 90-108  
  Keywords Light pollution; Night sky brightness; Skyglow; Moon radiation; Urban lighting; Hong Kong  
  Abstract Light pollution is a form of environmental degradation in which excessive artificial outdoor lighting, such as street lamps, neon signs, and illuminated signboards, affects the natural environment and the ecosystem. Poorly designed outdoor lighting not only wastes energy, money, and valuable Earth resources, but also robs us of our beautiful night sky. Effects of light pollution on the night sky can be evaluated by the skyglow caused by these artificial lighting sources, through measurements of the night sky brightness (NSB). The Hong Kong Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (NSN) was established to monitor in detail the conditions of light pollution in Hong Kong. Monitoring stations were set up throughout the city covering a wide range of urban and rural settings to continuously measure the variations of the NSB. Over 4.6 million night sky measurements were collected from 18 distinct locations between May 2010 and March 2013. This huge dataset, over two thousand times larger than our previous survey [1], forms the backbone for studies of the temporal and geographical variations of this environmental parameter and its correlation with various natural and artificial factors. The concepts and methodology of the NSN were presented here, together with an analysis of the overall night sky conditions in Hong Kong. The average NSB in Hong Kong, excluding data affected by the Moon, was 16.8 mag arcsec−2, or 82 times brighter than the dark site standard established by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) [2]. The urban night sky was on average 15 times brighter than that in a rural location, firmly establishing the effects of artificial lighting sources on the night sky.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 186  
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Author Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evolution of the energy consumed by street lighting in Spain estimated with DMSP-OLS data Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 109-117  
  Keywords Light pollution; Power consumption; Remote sensing; Light pollution models; Spain  
  Abstract We present the results of the analysis of satellite imagery to study light pollution in Spain. Both calibrated and non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images were used. We describe the method to scale the non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images which allows us to use differential photometry techniques in order to study the evolution of the light pollution. Population data and DMSP-OLS satellite calibrated images for the year 2006 were compared to test the reliability of official statistics in public lighting consumption. We found a relationship between the population and the energy consumption which is valid for several regions. Finally the true evolution of the electricity consumption for street lighting in Spain from 1992 to 2010 was derived; it has been doubled in the last 18 years in most of the provinces.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 187  
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Author Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A review of the theoretical and numerical approaches to modeling skyglow: iterative approach to RTE, MSOS, and two-stream approximation Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 181 Issue Pages 2-10  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The study of diffuse light of a night sky is undergoing a renaissance due to the development of inexpensive high performance computers which can significantly reduce the time needed for accurate numerical simulations. Apart from targeted field campaigns, numerical modeling appears to be one of the most attractive and powerful approaches for predicting the diffuse light of a night sky. However, computer-aided simulation of night-sky radiances over any territory and under arbitrary conditions is a complex problem that is difficult to solve. This study addresses three concepts for modeling the artificial light propagation through a turbid stratified atmosphere. Specifically, these are two-stream approximation, iterative approach to Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) and Method of Successive Orders of Scattering (MSOS). The principles of the methods, their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed with respect to their implications for night-light modelling in different environments.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1295  
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.; Zamorano, J.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The spectral amplification effect of clouds to the night sky radiance in Madrid Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 181 Issue Pages 11-23  
  Keywords Skyglow; Madrid; Spain; Europe; artificial light at night; light pollution; clouds; amplification  
  Abstract Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) may have various environmental impacts ranging from compromising the visibility of astronomical objects to the perturbation of circadian cycles in animals and humans. In the past much research has been carried out to study the impact of ALAN on the radiance of the night sky during clear sky conditions. This was mainly justified by the need for a better understanding of the behavior of ALAN propagation into the environment in order to protect world-class astronomical facilities. More recently, alongside to the threat to the natural starry sky, many issues have emerged from the biological science community. It has been shown that, nearby or inside cities, the presence of cloud cover generally acts as an amplifier for artificial sky radiance while clouds behave as attenuators for remote observers. In this paper we show the spectral behavior of the zenith sky radiance amplification factor exerted by clouds inside a city. We compare in-situ measurements made with the spectrometer SAND-4 with a numerical model applied to the specific geographical context of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spain.  
  Address Cégep de Sherbrooke, 475 rue du Cégep, Sherbrooke, Canada J1E 4K1; aubema(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1351  
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Author Jechow, A.; Hölker, F.; Kolláth, Z.; Gessner, M.O.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluating the summer night sky brightness at a research field site on Lake Stechlin in northeastern Germany Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 181 Issue Pages 24-32  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract We report on luminance measurements of the summer night sky at a field site on a freshwater lake in northeastern Germany (Lake Stechlin) to evaluate the amount of artificial skyglow from nearby and distant towns in the context of a planned study on light pollution. The site is located about 70 km north of Berlin in a rural area possibly belonging to one of the darkest regions in Germany. Continuous monitoring of the zenith sky luminance between June and September 2015 was conducted utilizing a Sky Quality Meter. With this device, typical values for clear nights in the range of 21.5–21.7 magSQM/arcsec2 were measured, which is on the order of the natural sky brightness during starry nights. On overcast nights, values down to 22.84 magSQM/arcsec2 were obtained, which is about one third as bright as on clear nights. The luminance measured on clear nights as well as the darkening with the presence of clouds indicate that there is very little influence of artificial skyglow on the zenith sky brightness at this location. Furthermore, fish-eye lens sky imaging luminance photometry was performed with a digital single-lens reflex camera on a clear night in the absence of moonlight. The photographs unravel several distant towns as possible sources of light pollution on the horizon. However, the low level of artificial skyglow makes the field site at Lake Stechlin an excellent location to study the effects of skyglow on a lake ecosystem in a controlled fashion.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1354  
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