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Author (up) Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evolution of the energy consumed by street lighting in Spain estimated with DMSP-OLS data Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 109-117  
  Keywords Light pollution; Power consumption; Remote sensing; Light pollution models; Spain  
  Abstract We present the results of the analysis of satellite imagery to study light pollution in Spain. Both calibrated and non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images were used. We describe the method to scale the non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images which allows us to use differential photometry techniques in order to study the evolution of the light pollution. Population data and DMSP-OLS satellite calibrated images for the year 2006 were compared to test the reliability of official statistics in public lighting consumption. We found a relationship between the population and the energy consumption which is valid for several regions. Finally the true evolution of the electricity consumption for street lighting in Spain from 1992 to 2010 was derived; it has been doubled in the last 18 years in most of the provinces.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 187  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ściężor, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The impact of clouds on the brightness of the night sky Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 106962  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract Clouds are a kind of atmospheric factor that most effectively scatters the artificial light coming from the ground. Therefore, they have the most significant impact on the brightness of the night sky. The paper analyses the influence of both the level of cloudiness, as well as the genera of clouds and altitude of its base, on amplifying of the light pollution. The impact of cloudiness on the brightness of the night sky in places with different levels of light pollution was researched. Measurements of meteorological elements were used together with clouds genera assessments. The introduction of an innovative method of identifying some genera of clouds on the base of the all-night continuous measurements of the sky's brightness allowed for a similar analysis in the absence of observational data specifying the genera of clouds.

A linear correlation between the cloudiness and the brightness of the night sky was found. The determined linear correlation parameters allow for specifying the three types of light-polluted areas, possibly related to the density of population. It was found that among the nine genera of the identified night clouds, the Altocumulus, Cirrocumulus, and Cumulonimbus ones are responsible for this correlation. No dependence of the brightness of the night sky on the clouds’ albedo was found. In case of overcast sky, there was a clear relationship between the average altitude of the individual genus of clouds and the brightness of the night sky. Most of the night sky brightness comes from the light scattered on the lowest altitude clouds genera, while the least contribution comes from the light scattered on the high-level clouds. It was also found that at the freezing temperatures, the layer of aerosols forms below the level of the genera Nimbostratus or Stratus. This layer, thickening with the decreasing temperature, additionally scatters the artificial light.
 
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2859  
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Author (up) Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban artificial light emission function determined experimentally using night sky images Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 181 Issue in press Pages 87-95  
  Keywords Skyglow  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1450  
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Author (up) Spoelstra, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title New device for monitoring the colors of the night Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 82-89  
  Keywords Light pollution; Night sky spectrum; Filters; Monitoring  
  Abstract The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical – especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 185  
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Author (up) Wallner, S.; Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impacts of surface albedo variations on the night sky brightness – A numerical and experimental analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 239 Issue Pages 106648  
  Keywords Skyglow; albedo; surface albedo; Sky Quality Meter; Austria; Europe  
  Abstract The aim of this paper is to analyze surface albedo impacts on artificial night sky brightness at zenith. The way in which these parameters correlate with each other is analyzed numerically and then experimentally by Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) in the city of Linz, Austria between 2016 and 2018. Three SQMs are located in city areas that differ in ground type, while other two are installed outside but near the city. To eliminate systematic errors of different SQMs or a missing inter-calibration of all devices, we examine relative change in zenithal brightness instead of its absolute values. However, the ground albedo not only depends on the ground type, but also shows seasonal variation most often driven by vegetation and environmental change. To understand these changes, we use SkyGlow simulator to perform numerical experiments on four different albedo models. The results have proven that seasonal variations are clearly visible as green city parts become darker around autumn and ratios to urban located SQMs increase. We show that there is a major difference in simulation results if either conducting city parts with various surface albedos or using only one averaged value over the whole city. The latter produces worse fit to the observed SQM data, implying that a use of various surface albedos is a need when modelling zenithal brightness in artificially lit areas of a city or town. Also, the seasonal changes of surface albedo cannot be neglected and the parameter itself must be included in the modelling tools.  
  Address Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria; stefan.wallner(at)univie.ac.at  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2675  
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