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Author Massetti, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Drivers of artificial light at night variability in urban, rural and remote areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract Light pollution generated by the excessive use of artificial light at night is an environmental and ecological concern. Artificial light at night is diffused far from the sources, for long distances by scattering in the atmosphere (skyglow), thus affecting the night sky and the biodiversity of rural and natural areas. The characterization of the level and variability of light pollution has become an important issue for several disciplines.

This study analyzes light pollution in urban, rural and remote sites in Tuscany (Italy) by monitoring night sky brightness. Night sky brightness (NSB) data collected from 2016 to 2019 were analyzed to assess annual and seasonal variability at each site and between sites. The relationship between night sky brightness and moonlight and weather conditions were also analyzed. Trend analysis was also performed to evaluate the degradation of the quality of the measurement with time due to dirty accumulation on the sensor shield.

NSB in Tuscany during moonless nights ranged between 17.3 and 21.8 mpsas. The monthly cycle of moonlight is the main driver of night sky brightness variability in the remote site (21.8 mpsas on moonless nights and 18.5 mpsas on full moon nights) with a slight, but significant darkening effect during rainy conditions (22.3 mpsas). In urban sites, moonlight cycle is almost completely masked by weather conditions, as it can be seen from the analysis of seasonal variability, lunar monthly cycle analysis and weather condition analysis. Average night sky brightness on rainy days might reach 15.4 mpsas (approximately 436 times brighter than the natural background), an intensity that is even higher than average night sky brightness in full moonlight at the same site (16.6 mpsas). Light pollution can reach levels that might affect nocturnal species, and therefore the study of long term variability of light pollution is important for ecological studies.
 
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3069  
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Author Fiorentin, P.; Bertolo, A.; Cavazzani, S.; Ortolani, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Calibration of digital compact cameras for sky quality measures Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; Instrumentation  
  Abstract This work presents the possibility of using the extremely popular compact digital cameras of smartphones or action cameras to perform sky photometry. The newest generation of these devices allows to save raw images. They are not as good as digital single-lens reflex camera, in particular in terms of sensitivity, noise and pixel depth (10 bit versus 12 bit or more), but they have the advantage of being extremely widespread on the population and relatively cheap. These economical digital compact cameras work with an electronic shutter, it overcomes the consumption of mechanics and allows to gather images for long time. The work uses a simple calibration method to transfer raw data from the proprietary RGB color space to the standard CIE 1931 color space. It allows the measurement of sky luminance in cd m−2 with an expected uncertainty of about 20%. Furthermore, the colorimetric calibration allows to know the correlated color temperature of a portion of the sky, it can help the identification of the kind of polluting sources. Aiming at better clarifying the performances of calibrated digital compact cameras, a comparison with a calibrated DSLR camera is presented in outdoor situations showing a good agreement both for luminance and color temperature measurements.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3063  
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Author Cui, H.; Shen, J.; Huang, Y.; Shen, X.; So, C.W.; Pun, C.S.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network in Wuxi, China Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 107219  
  Keywords skyglow  
  Abstract The rapid development of cities has brought tremendous pressure to astronomical observation, energy security, and the ecosystem. Automatic monitoring of night sky brightness (NSB) can help us to understand its regional differences and time variations of NSB effectively and to investigate the human and natural factors which lead to these changes. In this paper, the construction of Wuxi City night sky brightness monitoring network (WBMN) in China is presented. In addition to introducing the equipment and the installation of the network, a brief analysis of the data obtained from the stations will also be presented. The impact of human activities on the NSB is illustrated through its changes during the Spring Festival (lunar new year) and non-festival nights, and through a comparison study between NSB data taken from locations of different land usages. It is concluded that, while the reduction in human activities after non-festival midnights or the reduction in moon illumination near the new moon epoch led to darker night skies, brightening of the night skies may be attributed to firework displays during the nights of Spring Festival in 2019. On the other hand, the absence of firework during the Spring Festival in 2020 may explain the darker night skies. Finally, there is an evidence that the urban developments in Wuxi are degrading night sky quality.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3054  
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Author Kolláth, Z.; Cool, A.; Jechow, A.; Kolláth, K.; Száz, D.; Tong, K.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Introducing the Dark Sky Unit for multi-spectral measurement of the night sky quality with commercial digital cameras Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 253 Issue Pages 107162  
  Keywords Skyglow; Instrumentation; Measurement; light pollution; Radiometry  
  Abstract Multi-spectral imaging radiometry of the night sky provides essential information on light pollution (skyglow) and sky quality. However, due to the different spectral sensitivity of the devices used for light pollution measurement, the comparison of different surveys is not always trivial. In addition to the differences between measurement approaches, there is a strong variation in natural sky radiance due to the changes of airglow. Thus, especially at dark locations, the classical measurement methods (such as Sky Quality Meters) fail to provide consistent results. In this paper, we show how to make better use of the multi-spectral capabilities of commercial digital cameras and show their application for airglow analysis. We further recommend a novel sky quality metric the ”Dark Sky Unit”, based on an easily usable and SI traceable unit. This unit is a natural choice for consistent, digital camera-based measurements. We also present our camera system calibration methodology for use with the introduced metrics.  
  Address ELTE BDPK, Szombathely, Department of Physics, Hungary; zkollath(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsever Place of Publication Elsevier Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2998  
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Author Bouroussis, C.A.; Topalis, F.V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of outdoor lighting installations and their impact on light pollution using unmanned aircraft systems – The concept of the drone-gonio-photometer Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 253 Issue Pages 107155  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Lighting  
  Abstract This paper presents the ongoing work of the lighting laboratory to develop a standardized method for the measurement of several types of lighting installations using unmanned aircraft systems. The technology of unmanned aircraft systems can incorporate multiple types of sensors and can be programmed to fly in predefined areas and routes in order to perform complex measurements with limited human intervention. This technology provides the freedom of measurements from several angular positions and altitudes in a fast, easy, accurate and repeatable way. The overall aim of this work is to assess the lighting installations, not only against the applicable lighting standards but also to investigate and reveal issues related to light pollution and obtrusive lighting. The latter are issues that in most cases are neglected due to the lack of standardized methods of calculation and measurement. Current assessment methods require illuminance or luminance measurements of horizontal and vertical surfaces generally from the ground. The proposed approach provides a holistic three-dimensional evaluation of the lighting installations beyond the common methods and geometries and opens the discussion for future update of the relevant standards on outdoor lighting. In the scope of this paper, several proof-of-concept cases are presented.  
  Address Lighting Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15780, Zografou, Athens, Greece; bouroussis(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2996  
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