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Author Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux, S.A.J.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville, A.M. 2nd; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An estimate of avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages e34025  
  Keywords Ecology; Accidents/*statistics & numerical data; Altitude; Animals; Birds/*injuries; Canada; Computer Communication Networks/*instrumentation; Conservation of Natural Resources/*statistics & numerical data; *Flight, Animal; *Mortality; Regression Analysis; United States  
  Abstract (up) Avian mortality at communication towers in the continental United States and Canada is an issue of pressing conservation concern. Previous estimates of this mortality have been based on limited data and have not included Canada. We compiled a database of communication towers in the continental United States and Canada and estimated avian mortality by tower with a regression relating avian mortality to tower height. This equation was derived from 38 tower studies for which mortality data were available and corrected for sampling effort, search efficiency, and scavenging where appropriate. Although most studies document mortality at guyed towers with steady-burning lights, we accounted for lower mortality at towers without guy wires or steady-burning lights by adjusting estimates based on published studies. The resulting estimate of mortality at towers is 6.8 million birds per year in the United States and Canada. Bootstrapped subsampling indicated that the regression was robust to the choice of studies included and a comparison of multiple regression models showed that incorporating sampling, scavenging, and search efficiency adjustments improved model fit. Estimating total avian mortality is only a first step in developing an assessment of the biological significance of mortality at communication towers for individual species or groups of species. Nevertheless, our estimate can be used to evaluate this source of mortality, develop subsequent per-species mortality estimates, and motivate policy action.  
  Address The Urban Wildlands Group, Los Angeles, California, United States of America. longcore@urbanwildlands.org  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22558082; PMCID:PMC3338802 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 475  
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Author Orbach, D.N.; Fenton, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Vision impairs the abilities of bats to avoid colliding with stationary obstacles Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 5 Issue 11 Pages e13912  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Chiroptera/*physiology; Cyclonic Storms; Echolocation/*physiology; Female; Flight, Animal/*physiology; Light; Male; Space Perception/physiology/radiation effects; Vision, Ocular/*physiology/radiation effects; Vocalization, Animal/physiology  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Free-flying insectivorous bats occasionally collide with stationary objects they should easily detect by echolocation and avoid. Collisions often occur with lighted objects, suggesting ambient light may deleteriously affect obstacle avoidance capabilities. We tested the hypothesis that free-flying bats may orient by vision when they collide with some obstacles. We additionally tested whether acoustic distractions, such as “distress calls” of other bats, contributed to probabilities of collision. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of visual cues in the collisions of free-flying little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with stationary objects, we set up obstacles in an area of high bat traffic during swarming. We used combinations of light intensities and visually dissimilar obstacles to verify that bats orient by vision. In early August, bats collided more often in the light than the dark, and probabilities of collision varied with the visibility of obstacles. However, the probabilities of collisions altered in mid to late August, coincident with the start of behavioural, hormonal, and physiological changes occurring during swarming and mating. Distress calls did not distract bats and increase the incidence of collisions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that visual cues are more important for free-flying bats than previously recognized, suggesting integration of multi-sensory modalities during orientation. Furthermore, our study highlights differences between responses of captive and wild bats, indicating a need for more field experiments.  
  Address Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. dnorbach@gmail.com  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:21085481; PMCID:PMC2976695 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 96  
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Author Chellappa, S.L.; Steiner, R.; Blattner, P.; Oelhafen, P.; Gotz, T.; Cajochen, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Non-visual effects of light on melatonin, alertness and cognitive performance: can blue-enriched light keep us alert? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages e16429  
  Keywords Circadian Rhythm/radiation effects; Cognition/*radiation effects; Color; Cross-Over Studies; Fluorescence; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/*radiation effects; Reaction Time/*radiation effects; Young Adult; blue light  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Light exposure can cascade numerous effects on the human circadian process via the non-imaging forming system, whose spectral relevance is highest in the short-wavelength range. Here we investigated if commercially available compact fluorescent lamps with different colour temperatures can impact on alertness and cognitive performance. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young men were studied in a balanced cross-over design with light exposure of 3 different light settings (compact fluorescent lamps with light of 40 lux at 6500K and at 2500K and incandescent lamps of 40 lux at 3000K) during 2 h in the evening. RESULTS: Exposure to light at 6500K induced greater melatonin suppression, together with enhanced subjective alertness, well-being and visual comfort. With respect to cognitive performance, light at 6500K led to significantly faster reaction times in tasks associated with sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance and GO/NOGO Task), but not in tasks associated with executive function (Paced Visual Serial Addition Task). This cognitive improvement was strongly related with attenuated salivary melatonin levels, particularly for the light condition at 6500K. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the sensitivity of the human alerting and cognitive response to polychromatic light at levels as low as 40 lux, is blue-shifted relative to the three-cone visual photopic system. Thus, the selection of commercially available compact fluorescent lights with different colour temperatures significantly impacts on circadian physiology and cognitive performance at home and in the workplace.  
  Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland  
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  Notes PMID:21298068; PMCID:PMC3027693 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 286  
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Author Summa, K.C.; Vitaterna, M.H.; Turek, F.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental perturbation of the circadian clock disrupts pregnancy in the mouse Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages e37668  
  Keywords Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; *Environment; Female; Locomotion/physiology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Photoperiod; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Outcome; Reproduction/*physiology  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: The circadian clock has been linked to reproduction at many levels in mammals. Epidemiological studies of female shift workers have reported increased rates of reproductive abnormalities and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although whether the cause is circadian disruption or another factor associated with shift work is unknown. Here we test whether environmental disruption of circadian rhythms, using repeated shifts of the light:dark (LD) cycle, adversely affects reproductive success in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Young adult female C57BL/6J (B6) mice were paired with B6 males until copulation was verified by visual identification of vaginal plug formation. Females were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, phase-delay or phase-advance. Controls remained on a constant 12-hr light:12-hr dark cycle, whereas phase-delayed and phase-advanced mice were subjected to 6-hr delays or advances in the LD cycle every 5-6 days, respectively. The number of copulations resulting in term pregnancies was determined. Control females had a full-term pregnancy success rate of 90% (11/12), which fell to 50% (9/18; p<0.1) in the phase-delay group and 22% (4/18; p<0.01) in the phase-advance group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Repeated shifting of the LD cycle, which disrupts endogenous circadian timekeeping, dramatically reduces pregnancy success in mice. Advances of the LD cycle have a greater negative impact on pregnancy outcomes and, in non-pregnant female mice, require longer for circadian re-entrainment, suggesting that the magnitude or duration of circadian misalignment may be related to the severity of the adverse impact on pregnancy. These results explicitly link disruptions of circadian entrainment to adverse pregnancy outcomes in mammals, which may have important implications for the reproductive health of female shift workers, women with circadian rhythm sleep disorders and/or women with disturbed circadian rhythms for other reasons.  
  Address Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology, Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22649550; PMCID:PMC3359308 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 92  
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Author Lu, Y.; Coops, N.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bright lights, big city: Causal effects of population and GDP on urban brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 13 Issue 7 Pages e0199545  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract (up) Cities are arguably both the cause, and answer, to societies' current sustainability issues. Urbanization is the interplay between a city's physical growth and its socio-economic development, both of which consume a substantial amount of energy and resources. Knowledge of the underlying driver(s) of urban expansion facilitates not only academic research but, more importantly, bridges the gap between science, policy drafting, and practical urban management. An increasing number of researchers are recognizing the benefits of innovative remotely sensed datasets, such as nighttime lights data (NTL), as a proxy to map urbanization and subsequently examine the driving socio-economic variables in cities. We further these approaches, by taking a trans-pacific view, and examine how an array of socio-economic ind0icators of 25 culturally and economically important urban hubs relate to long term patterns in NTL for the past 21 years. We undertake a classic econometric approach-panel causality tests which allow analysis of the causal relationships between NTL and socio-economic development across the region. The panel causality test results show a contrasting effect of population and gross domestic product (GDP) on NTL in fast, and slowly, changing cities. Information derived from this study quantitatively chronicles urban activities in the pan-Pacific region and potentially offers data for studies that spatially track local progress of sustainable urban development goals.  
  Address Integrated Remote Sensing Studio, Forest Recourses Management, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:29995923 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1963  
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