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Author Le Tallec, T.; Perret, M.; Théry, M.
Title Light Pollution Modifies the Expression of Daily Rhythms and Behavior Patterns in a Nocturnal Primate Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages e79250
Keywords Animals
Abstract Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 380
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Author Rodríguez, A.; Burgan, G.; Dann, P.; Jessop, R.; Negro, J.J.; Chiaradia, A.
Title Fatal Attraction of Short-Tailed Shearwaters to Artificial Lights Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication PLOS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLOS ONE
Volume 9 Issue Pages e110114
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Abstract Light pollution is increasing around the world and altering natural nightscapes with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. A severe ecological perturbation caused by artificial lights is mass mortalities of organisms, including seabird fledglings that are attracted to lights at night on their first flights to the sea. Here, we report on the number of fledging short-tailed shearwaters Ardenna tenuirostris found grounded in evening and morning rescue patrols conducted at Phillip Island, Australia, during a 15-year period (1999–2013). We assessed factors affecting numbers of grounded birds and mortality including date, moon phase, wind direction and speed, number of visitors and holiday periods. We also tested experimentally if birds were attracted to lights by turning the lights off on a section of the road. Of 8871 fledglings found, 39% were dead or dying. This mortality rate was 4–8 times higher than reported elsewhere for other shearwater species, probably because searching for fledglings was part of our systematic rescue effort rather than the opportunistic rescue used elsewhere. Thus, it suggests that light-induced mortality of seabirds is usually underestimated. We rescued more birds (dead and alive) in peak fledging, moonless and windy nights. Mortality increased through the fledging period, in the mornings and with increased traffic on holiday periods. Turning the road lights off decreased the number of grounded birds (dead and alive). While moon, wind and time are uncontrolled natural constraints, we demonstrated that reduction of light pollution and better traffic management can mitigate artificial light-induced mortality.
Address Animals; light pollution; ecology; shearwater; short-tailed shearwaters; Ardenna tenuirostris; Phillip Island; Australia; mortality; birds
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 678
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Author Blask, David E; Dauchy, Robert T; Dauchy, Erin M; Mao, Lulu; Hill, Steven M; Greene, Michael W; Belancio, Victoria P; Sauer, Leonard A; Davidson, Leslie
Title Light exposure at night disrupts host/cancer circadian regulatory dynamics: Impact on the Warburg effect, lipid signaling and tumor growth prevention Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue 8 Pages e102776
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Abstract The central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) plays an important role in temporally organizing and coordinating many of the processes governing cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in synchrony with the daily light/dark cycle which may contribute to endogenous cancer prevention. Bioenergetic substrates and molecular intermediates required for building tumor biomass each day are derived from both aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) and lipid metabolism. Using tissue-isolated human breast cancer xenografts grown in nude rats, we determined that circulating systemic factors in the host and the Warburg effect, linoleic acid uptake/metabolism and growth signaling activities in the tumor are dynamically regulated, coordinated and integrated within circadian time structure over a 24-hour light/dark cycle by SCN-driven nocturnal pineal production of the anticancer hormone melatonin. Dim light at night (LAN)-induced melatonin suppression disrupts this circadian-regulated host/cancer balance among several important cancer preventative signaling mechanisms, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the host and runaway aerobic glycolysis, lipid signaling and proliferative activity in the tumor.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1579
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Author Navarro, Johanna Y.; Lahti, David C.
Title Light Dulls and Darkens Bird Eggs Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue 12 Pages e116112
Keywords aanimals; birds; eggshell; color
Abstract Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula) to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250–800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1597
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.
Title Cloud coverage acts as an amplifier for ecological light pollution in urban ecosystems Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages e17307
Keywords Berlin; *Cities; *Ecosystem; Environmental Pollution/*adverse effects/analysis; *Light; Seasons; *Weather
Abstract The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the luminance of the sky amplify the degree of this “ecological light pollution”. We show that cloud coverage dramatically amplifies the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 for one location inside of Berlin and by a factor of 2.8 at 32 km from the city center. We also show that inside of the city overcast nights are brighter than clear rural moonlit nights, by a factor of 4.1. These results have important implications for choronobiological and chronoecological studies in urban areas, where this amplification effect has previously not been considered.
Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de
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ISSN (up) 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:21399694; PMCID:PMC3047560 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 20
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