|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Cisse, Y.M.; Russart, K.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Exposure to dim light at night prior to conception attenuates offspring innate immune responses Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume (down) 15 Issue 4 Pages e0231140
Keywords Animals
Abstract Functional circadian timekeeping is necessary for homeostatic control of the immune system and appropriate immune responsiveness. Disruption of natural light-dark cycles, through light at night (LAN), impairs innate and adaptive immune responses in nocturnal rodents. These altered immune responses are associated with disrupted endogenous gene transcriptional and endocrine cycles. However, few studies have addressed the multigenerational consequences of systemic circadian rhythm disruption. We hypothesized that parental exposure to dim LAN (dLAN) would alter innate immune and sickness responses to an endotoxin challenge in adult offspring gestated and reared in dark nights. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 8 weeks, then paired, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Maternal exposure to dLAN prior to conception impaired febrile responses and increased splenic il-1 production in response to LPS in male offspring. Paternal pre-conception dLAN dampened offspring tnf-alpha expression in the hypothalamus, reduced serum bactericidal capacity, and dark phase locomotor activity. These changes occurred despite offspring being conceived, gestated, and reared under standard dark night conditions. Overall, these data suggest that dLAN has intergenerational effects on innate immunity and sickness responses.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32302341 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2887
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Leonard, J.P.; Tewes, M.E.; Lombardi, J.V.; Wester, D.W.; Campbell, T.A.
Title Effects of sun angle, lunar illumination, and diurnal temperature on temporal movement rates of sympatric ocelots and bobcats in South Texas Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume (down) 15 Issue 4 Pages e0231732
Keywords Animals; moonlight
Abstract Sympatric ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in South Texas show substantial overlap in body size, food habits, and habitat use. Consequently, we explore whether temporal niche partitioning may explain ocelot and bobcat coexistence. We investigated the influence of sun angle, lunar illumination, and maximum diurnal temperature on temporal movement rates of sympatric ocelots (n = 8) and bobcats (n = 6) using a combination of high-frequency GPS locations and bi-axial accelerometer data. We demonstrated that accelerometer data could be used to predict movement rates, providing a nearly continuous measure of animal activity and supplementing GPS locations. Ocelots showed a strong nocturnal activity pattern with the highest movement rates at night whereas bobcats showed a crepuscular activity pattern with the highest movement rates occurring around sunrise and sunset. Although bobcat activity levels were lower during the day, bobcat diurnal activity was higher than ocelot diurnal activity. During warmer months, bobcats were more active on nights with high levels of lunar illumination. In contrast, ocelots showed the highest nocturnal activity levels during periods of low lunar illumination. Ocelots showed reduced diurnal activity on hotter days. Our results indicate that ocelot and bobcat coexistence in South Texas can be partially explained by temporal niche partitioning, although both felids showed periods of overlapping activity during nocturnal and crepuscular periods.
Address East Foundation, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32324759 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2891
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Riedel, C.S.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.; Hannibal, J.
Title Altered light induced EGR1 expression in the SCN of PACAP deficient mice Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume (down) 15 Issue 5 Pages e0232748
Keywords Animals
Abstract The brain's biological clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and generates circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. The circadian clock needs daily adjustment by light to stay synchronized (entrained) with the astronomical 24 h light/dark cycle. Light entrainment occurs via melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) and two neurotransmitters of the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), PACAP and glutamate, which transmit light information to the SCN neurons. In SCN neurons, light signaling involves the immediate-early genes Fos, Egr1 and the clock genes Per1 and Per2. In this study, we used PACAP deficient mice to evaluate PACAP's role in light induced gene expression of EGR1 in SCN neurons during early (ZT17) and late (ZT23) subjective night at high (300 lux) and low (10 lux) white light exposure. We found significantly lower levels of both EGR1 mRNA and protein in the SCN in PACAP deficient mice compared to wild type mice at early subjective night (ZT17) exposed to low but not high light intensity. No difference was found between the two genotypes at late night (ZT23) at neither light intensities. In conclusion, light mediated EGR1 induction in SCN neurons at early night at low light intensities is dependent of PACAP signaling. A role of PACAP in shaping synaptic plasticity during light stimulation at night is discussed.
Address Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen NV, Denmark
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32379800; PMCID:PMC7205239 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2915
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Salat, H.; Smoreda, Z.; Schlapfer, M.
Title A method to estimate population densities and electricity consumption from mobile phone data in developing countries Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume (down) 15 Issue 6 Pages e0235224
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract High quality census data are not always available in developing countries. Instead, mobile phone data are becoming a popular proxy to evaluate the density, activity and social characteristics of a population. They offer additional advantages: they are updated in real-time, include mobility information and record visitors' activity. However, we show with the example of Senegal that the direct correlation between the average phone activity and both the population density and the nighttime lights intensity may be insufficiently high to provide an accurate representation of the situation. There are reasons to expect this, such as the heterogeneity of the market share or the particular granularity of the distribution of cell towers. In contrast, we present a method based on the daily, weekly and yearly phone activity curves and on the network characteristics of the mobile phone data, that allows to estimate more accurately such information without compromising people's privacy. This information can be vital for development and infrastructure planning. In particular, this method could help to reduce significantly the logistic costs of data collection in the particularly budget-constrained context of developing countries.
Address Future Cities Laboratory, Singapore-ETH Centre, ETH Zurich, Singapore, Singapore
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32603345 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3030
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Li, X.; Yang, X.; Gong, L.
Title Evaluating the influencing factors of urbanization in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region over the past 27 years based on VIIRS-DNB and DMSP/OLS nightlight imageries Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume (down) 15 Issue 7 Pages e0235903
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is the core economic area of the “Silk Road Economic Belt”. The urbanization of this region plays a highly important role in economic and cultural communications between China, Central Asia and Europe. However, the influencing factors of urbanization in this region remain unclear. In this study, we presented a new modified thresholding method to extract the urban built-up areas from two nightlight remote sensing data sources, i.e., the DMSP/OLS and VIIRS/DNB nightlight imageries. Then, geographical detectors and hierarchical partitioning analysis were used to test the influences of anthropogenic and geographic environmental factors on urbanization. Our results showed that the relative error between the actual and the extracted urban built-up areas calculated using our method ranged from -0.30 to 0.27 in two biggest sample cities (Urumqi and Karamay) over the last 27 years. These errors were lower than those calculated by using the traditional method (-0.66 </= relative error </= -0.11). The expansion of urban built-up areas was greater in the northern regions than the southern regions of Xinjiang, as well as was greater in large cities than small and medium-sized cities. The influence of anthropogenic factors on urbanization has continually decreased over the past 27 years, while the influence of geographical environmental factors has increased. Among all influencing factors, fixed asset investment, topographic position index and per capita possession of water resources have the high contributions on urbanization, accounting for 18.75%, 15.62% and 14.18% of the variance of urbanization, respectively. Here, we provided a new method for studying urbanization by using remote sensing data. Our results are helpful for understand the driving factors of urbanization, and they provide guidance for the sustainable economic development of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
Address Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32697778; PMCID:PMC7375535 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3077
Permanent link to this record