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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Angular Emission Function of a City and Skyglow Modeling: A Critical Perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Pasp  
  Volume 128 Issue 970 Pages 124001  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is a common approach to solving the transfer of electromagnetic energy in heterogeneous disperse media, such as atmospheric environment. One-dimensional RTE is a linear boundary value problem that is well suited to plane-parallel atmosphere with no diffuse intensity entering the top of the atmosphere. In nighttime regime, the ground-based light sources illuminate the atmosphere at its bottom interface. However, the light-pollution models conventionally use radiant intensity function rather than radiance. This might potentially result in a number of misconceptions. We focused on similarities and fundamental differences between both functions and clarified distinct consequences for the modeling of skyglow from finite-sized and semi-infinite light-emitting flat surfaces. Minimum requirements to be fulfilled by a City Emission Function (CEF) are formulated to ensure a successful solution of standard and inverse problems. It has been shown that the horizon radiance of a flat surface emitting in accordance with Garstang's function (GEF) would exceed any limit, meaning that the GEF is not an appropriate tool to model skyglow from distant sources. We developed two alternative CEFs to remedy this problem through correction of direct upward emissions; the most important strengths of the modified CEFs are detailed in this paper. Numerical experiments on sky luminance under well-posed and ill-posed boundary conditions were made for two extreme uplight fractions (F) and for three discrete distances from the city edge. The errors induced by replacing radiance with radiant intensity function in the RTE are generally low (15%–30%) if F is as large as 0.15, but alteration of the luminance may range over 1–3 orders of magnitude if F approaches zero. In the latter case, the error margin can increase by a factor of 10–100 or even 1000, even if the angular structure of luminance patterns suffers only weak changes. This is why such a shift in luminance magnitudes can be mistakenly interpreted as the effect of inaccurate estimate of lumens per head of the population rather than the effect of cosine distortion due to ill-posed inputs to the RTE. For that reason, a thorough revision (and/or remediation) of theoretical and computational models is suggested.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1564  
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Author Grauer, A.D.; Grauer, P.A.; Davies, N.; Davies, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of Space Weather on the Natural Night Sky Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal PASP  
  Volume 131 Issue 1005 Pages 114508  
  Keywords Darkness; night sky brightness; United States; New Zealand; Sun; space weather; solar wind  
  Abstract In 2018, Solar Cycle 24 entered a deep solar minimum. During this period, we collected night sky brightness data at Cosmic Campground International Dark Sky Sanctuary (CCIDSS) in the USA (2018 September 4–2019 January 4) and at Aotea/Great Barrier Island International Dark Sky Sanctuary (AGBIIDSS) in New Zealand (2018 March 26–August 31. These sites have artificial-light-pollution-free natural night skies. The equipment employed are identical Unihedron SQM-LU-DL meters, used as single-channel differential photometers, to scan the sky as Earth rotates on its axis. We have developed new analysis techniques which select those data points which are uninfluenced by Sun, Moon, or clouds to follow brightness changes at selected points on the celestial sphere and to measure the brightness of the airglow above its quiescent level. The 2018 natural night sky was measured to change in brightness by approximately 0.9 mag arcsec−2 at both locations. Preliminary results indicate the modulations of the light curves (brightness versus R.A.) we observed are related in complex ways to elements of space weather conditions in the near-Earth environment. In particular, episodes of increased night sky brightness are observed to be contemporaneous with geomagnetic activity, increases in mean solar wind speed, and some solar proton/electron fluence events. Charged particles in the solar wind take days to reach near-Earth environment after a coronal hole is observed to be facing in our direction. Use of this information could make it possible to predict increases in Earth’s natural night sky brightness several days in advance. What we have learned during this solar minimum leads us to search for other solar driven changes in night sky brightness as the Sun begins to move into solar maximum conditions.  
  Address Catalina Sky Survey, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, USA; algrauer(at)me.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Astronomical Society of the Pacific Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2696  
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Author Lockwood, G.W.; Thompson, D.T.; Floyd, R.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sky glow and outdoor lighting trends since 1976 at the Lowell Observatory Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal PASP  
  Volume 102 Issue Pages 481  
  Keywords Skyglow; Lighting  
  Abstract Urban sky-glow (light pollution) trends, recorded photoelectrically in intermediate-band b (472 nm) and y (551 nm) filters at the original site of the Lowell Observatory on Mars Hill near downtown Flagstaff, Arizona, reflect not just the population growth of the surrounding city but also some ameliorating effects of lighting controls and a changing mix of outdoor lighting sources. Since 1976 the sky brightness increased in b but has been virtually constant in y. New ordinances limit lighting growth near observatories and require monochromatic low-pressure sodium luminaires for most applications.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3026  
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