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Author Luginbuhl, C.B.; Lockwood, G.W.; Davis, D.R.; Pick, K.; Selders, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) From The Ground Up I: Light Pollution Sources in Flagstaff, Arizona Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 121 Issue 876 Pages 185-203  
  Keywords light pollution; Flagstaff; Arizona; measurements; lighting policy; public policy  
  Abstract We develop an estimate of the complete outdoor lighting of Flagstaff Arizona, as well as lighting-use densities (lumens per acre) for a number of different land uses. We find a total outdoor light output of 173 million lumens (Mlm) including sports lighting, and 139 Mlm without sports lighting, with an uncertainty of about 7%. The average fraction escaping directly upward from light fixtures is estimated to be 8.3%. After correcting approximately for near-ground blocking described in the accompanying paper by Luginbuhl et al., total uplight is estimated at 17.9 Mlm or 12.2 Mlm with and without sports lighting, respectively. Of these 17.9 Mlm, 33% arise from sports lighting, when it is on; when sports lighting is off, commercial and industrial lighting account for 62% with the remainder dominated by residential (14%) and roadway lighting (12%). We show that the 1989 Flagstaff lighting code that limited total outdoor lighting on new construction has reduced the growth rate of lighting, resulting in a 17% growth in light escaping into the sky from 1989 to 2003, compared to a 43% increase expected if the 1989 code had not been enacted. If all legally nonconforming lighting installed before 1989 were to be brought into compliance with the code, we would expect sky glow in Flagstaff to actually decrease by 36% compared to that in 2003; if all lighting, including residential, could be converted to fully shielded fixtures, sky glow would decrease to about half the current value. The implications for the most effective ways to address sky glow through lighting codes are discussed.  
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  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 246  
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Author Luginbuhl, C.B.; Duriscoe, D.M.; Moore, C.W.; Richman, A.; Lockwood, G.W.; Davis, D.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) From the Ground Up II: Sky Glow and Near-Ground Artificial Light Propagation in Flagstaff, Arizona Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 121 Issue 876 Pages 204-212  
  Keywords Astronomical Phenomena and Seeing; Flagstaff; Arizona; sky brightness; measurements; light pollution; skyglow  
  Abstract We present panoramic sky brightness measures in the Johnson V band made at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. We find that these measures show much less sky glow from Flagstaff than expected using the total light output and unshielded fraction determined recently by Luginbuhl et al. and Garstang’s 1991 modeling approach. We suggest the difference arises principally from the diminution of upward-directed light after emission from light fixtures and reflection from the ground due to interaction with structures and vegetation. This interaction not only reduces the effective albedo, it also disproportionately reduces flux emitted upward at angles near the horizontal. We explore the size and consequences of this factor in light pollution modeling, and propose a modified upward angular distribution function to account for this effect.  
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  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 262  
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Author Grauer, A.D.; Grauer, P.A.; Davies, N.; Davies, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Impact of Space Weather on the Natural Night Sky Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal PASP  
  Volume 131 Issue 1005 Pages 114508  
  Keywords Darkness; night sky brightness; United States; New Zealand; Sun; space weather; solar wind  
  Abstract In 2018, Solar Cycle 24 entered a deep solar minimum. During this period, we collected night sky brightness data at Cosmic Campground International Dark Sky Sanctuary (CCIDSS) in the USA (2018 September 4–2019 January 4) and at Aotea/Great Barrier Island International Dark Sky Sanctuary (AGBIIDSS) in New Zealand (2018 March 26–August 31. These sites have artificial-light-pollution-free natural night skies. The equipment employed are identical Unihedron SQM-LU-DL meters, used as single-channel differential photometers, to scan the sky as Earth rotates on its axis. We have developed new analysis techniques which select those data points which are uninfluenced by Sun, Moon, or clouds to follow brightness changes at selected points on the celestial sphere and to measure the brightness of the airglow above its quiescent level. The 2018 natural night sky was measured to change in brightness by approximately 0.9 mag arcsec−2 at both locations. Preliminary results indicate the modulations of the light curves (brightness versus R.A.) we observed are related in complex ways to elements of space weather conditions in the near-Earth environment. In particular, episodes of increased night sky brightness are observed to be contemporaneous with geomagnetic activity, increases in mean solar wind speed, and some solar proton/electron fluence events. Charged particles in the solar wind take days to reach near-Earth environment after a coronal hole is observed to be facing in our direction. Use of this information could make it possible to predict increases in Earth’s natural night sky brightness several days in advance. What we have learned during this solar minimum leads us to search for other solar driven changes in night sky brightness as the Sun begins to move into solar maximum conditions.  
  Address Catalina Sky Survey, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, USA; algrauer(at)me.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Astronomical Society of the Pacific Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2696  
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Author Krisciunas, K.; Bogglio, H.; Sanhueza, P.; Smith, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Light Pollution At High Zenith Angles, As Measured at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory1 Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 122 Issue 889 Pages 373-377  
  Keywords Astronomical Phenomena and Seeing; Cerro Tololo; Garstang model; skyglow; light pollution; measurements  
  Abstract On the basis of measurements of the V-band sky brightness obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in 2006 December and 2008 December we confirm the functional form of the basic model of Garstang. At high zenith angles we measure an enhancement of a factor of 2 over Garstang’s later model when there is no marine cloud layer over La Serena/Coquimbo. No corresponding enhancement is found in the B band.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 261  
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Author Walker, M.F. url  openurl
  Title (up) Light Pollution in California and Arizona. Type Journal Article
  Year 1973 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 85 Issue 507 Pages 508-519  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The present and future effect of artificial illumination on ground-based optical astronomical observations in California and Arizona is discussed. It is concluded that the effectiveness of all major observatories in these states is presently or potentially limited by light pollution. Consequently, it is essential that immediate efforts be undertaken to: (1) Control outdoor illumination to lengthen the useful life of existing observatory sites, and (2) Identify and protect the best remaining sites both within and outside the United States. The characteristics and probable locations of the best sites for ground-based optical astronomical observations are discussed.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 567  
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