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Author (up) Brüning A., Hölker, F., Franke, S., Preuer, T., Kloas, W. url  doi
  Title Spotlight on fish: Light pollution affects circadian rhythms of European perch but does not cause stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 511 Issue Pages 516-522  
  Keywords Animals; Perca fluviatilis; Light pollution; Light intensity; Non-invasive hormone measurement; Fish  
  Abstract Flora and fauna evolved under natural day and night cycles. However, natural light is now enhanced by artificial light at night, particularly in urban areas. This alteration of natural light environments during the night is hypothesised to alter biological rhythms in fish, by effecting night-time production of the hormone melatonin. Artificial light at night is also expected to increase the stress level of fish, resulting in higher cortisol production. In laboratory experiments, European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to four different light intensities during the night, 0 lx (control), 1 lx (potential light level in urban waters), 10 lx (typical street lighting at night) and 100 lx. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured from water samples every 3 h during a 24 hour period. This study revealed that the nocturnal increase in melatonin production was inhibited even at the lowest light level of 1 lx. However, cortisol levels did not differ between control and treatment illumination levels. We conclude that artificial light at night at very low intensities may disturb biological rhythms in fish since nocturnal light levels around 1 lx are already found in urban waters. However, enhanced stress induction could not be demonstrated.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1087  
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