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Author (up) Landgren, E.; Fritsches, K.; Brill, R.; Warrant, E. url  doi
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  Title The visual ecology of a deep-sea fish, the escolar Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Smith, 1843) Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 369 Issue 1636 Pages 20130039  
  Keywords Vision; Animals  
  Abstract Escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum, family Gempylidae) are large and darkly coloured deep-sea predatory fish found in the cold depths (more than 200 m) during the day and in warm surface waters at night. They have large eyes and an overall low density of retinal ganglion cells that endow them with a very high optical sensitivity. Escolar have banked retinae comprising six to eight layers of rods to increase the optical path length for maximal absorption of the incoming light. Their retinae possess two main areae of higher ganglion cell density, one in the ventral retina viewing the dorsal world above (with a moderate acuity of 4.6 cycles deg(-1)), and the second in the temporal retina viewing the frontal world ahead. Electrophysiological recordings of the flicker fusion frequency (FFF) in isolated retinas indicate that escolar have slow vision, with maximal FFF at the highest light levels and temperatures (around 9 Hz at 23 degrees C) which fall to 1-2 Hz in dim light or cooler temperatures. Our results suggest that escolar are slowly moving sit-and-wait predators. In dim, warm surface waters at night, their slow vision, moderate dorsal resolution and highly sensitive eyes may allow them to surprise prey from below that are silhouetted in the downwelling light.  
  Address Lund Vision Group, Department of Biology, University of Lund, , Solvegatan 35, 22362 Lund, Sweden  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8436 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24395966; PMCID:PMC3886327 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1092  
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