||Lighting technologies are rapidly evolving, creating many opportunities for good lighting within the NICU. With the widespread adoption of advanced solid-state lighting technologies, lighting no longer needs to be static. Rather, lighting systems can be more easily adjusted to the different and changing visual and non-visual needs of the professional staff, infants and family members throughout the 24-hour day. This paper provides a conceptual framework for defining good lighting in the NICU, recognizing the needs of various constituent groups, each with very different needs from the lighting. Several other papers on the topic of lighting for various constituent groups at different times of the day in the NICU are summarized. Attention is given specifically to the Recommended Standards for Newborn ICU Design, a consensus standard developed by a wide range of experts, to help the reader translate this conceptual framework to practice.