||As a result of the desire to improve living standards, increasing attention is paid to creating a comfortable and healthy lighting environment that contributes to human health and well-being. It is crucial to understand the effects of environmental lighting regulation on humans’ physical responses and mental activities. In this review, we focus on the scientific research on light-induced non-visual effects on humans, providing a systematic review of how the quantity of light, spectral changes, time of day, and duration have effects on the circadian rhythm, alertness, and mood based on eligible literature. The key findings are as follows: (1) The increase of illuminance and correlated colour temperature (CCT) at night were both positively associated with melatonin suppression, thus affecting the circadian rhythm. Meanwhile, a high CCT is conducive to the stimulation of positive mood. (2) Blue light and high CCT light at night induced delayed phase shift, and the objective alertness was reduced under the condition of lack of blue components. (3) High illuminance was positively correlated with subjective alertness during daytime, and increased the positive mood in the morning and decreased it in the afternoon. These findings serve as an important reference for stakeholders to optimise lighting in constructed environments to improve health and well-being considering the non-visual effects above and beyond visual performance.