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Author (up) Tähkämö, L.; Ylinen, A.; Puolakka, M.; Halonen, L. url  doi
  Title Life cycle cost analysis of three renewed street lighting installations in Finland Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Abbreviated Journal Int J Life Cycle Assess  
  Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 154-164  
  Keywords LED; LED lighting; Life cycle costs; Light-emitting diode; Payback time; Road lighting; Street lighting  
  Abstract Purpose

Outdoor lighting is facing major changes due to the EU legislation on ecodesign of energy-related products, such as the ban of high-pressure mercury (HPM) lamps widely used in outdoor lighting. This article presents life cycle costs (LCC) of three examples of replacing HPM lamps in street lighting in Finland. The purpose of the article is to assess how the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology affects LCCs and how the division of LCCs differentiates in the cases.


Two of the cases change from HPM lamps to high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. In the third one, HPM lamps are replaced by LED luminaires. LED technology predictions of price and luminous efficacy are included in different scenarios. The calculations consider investment and operating costs and residual value.

Results and discussion

Each replacement reduces the energy costs approximately by half compared to the original HPM lamp luminaires. Energy costs dominate the LCCs of the HPS lamp installations while investment cost is the dominating one in LED luminaire case. The changes from HPM to HPS technology have payback times lower than 9 years, while changing to LED luminaires is not economic. However, the electricity price is low in this case. The payback times of LED installations can be as low as 6 years if the luminaires are installed in 2015 and an average electricity price is used.


The LCCs of real-life case studies cannot be directly compared, since their luminous properties vary. There is a need for a method for including luminous properties in LCC calculations.
  Address Lighting Unit, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13340, 00076, Aalto, Finland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 332  
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