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Author Johansen, N.S.; Vänninen, I.; Pinto, D.M.; Nissinen, A.I.; Shipp, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title In the light of new greenhouse technologies: 2. Direct effects of artificial lighting on arthropods and integrated pest management in greenhouse crops Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Annals of Applied Biology Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 159 Issue 1 Pages 1-27  
  Keywords Behaviour; biology; insects; light intensity; mites; photobiology; photoperiod; photoreceptors; plant protection; visual ecology; wavelength distribution  
  Abstract Novel lighting technology offers the possibility of improved arthropod integrated pest management (IPM) in artificially lighted crops. This review compiles the current knowledge on how greenhouse pest and beneficial arthropods are directly affected by light, with the focus on whiteflies. The effect of ultraviolet depletion on orientation and colour-coded phototaxis are to some extent studied and utilised for control of the flying adult stage of some pest species, but far less is known about the visual ecology of commercially used biological control agents and pollinators, and about how light affects arthropod biology in different life stages. Four approaches for utilisation of artificial light in IPM of whiteflies are suggested: (a) use of attractive visual stimuli incorporated into traps for monitoring and direct control, (b) use of visual stimuli that disrupt the host-detection process, (c) radiation with harmful or inhibitory wavelengths to kill or suppress pest populations and (d) use of time cues to manipulate daily rhythms and photoperiodic responses. Knowledge gaps are identified to design a road map for research on IPM in crops lighted with high-pressure sodium lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photoselective films. LEDs are concluded to offer possibilities for behavioural manipulation of arthropods, but the extent of such possibilities depends in practice on which wavelength combinations are determined to be optimal for plant production. Furthermore, the direct effects of artificial lighting on IPM must be studied in the context of plant-mediated effects of artificial light on arthropods, as both types of manipulations are possible, particularly with LEDs.  
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  ISSN 0003-4746 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 112  
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Author Wuchterl, G.; Reithofer, M. openurl 
  Title Licht über Wien VII Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; Energy  
  Abstract 231. Auf einen BlickDie Helligkeit des Wiener Nachthimmels hat sich stabilisiert. 2019 ist das zweite Jahr in Folge, in dem die Energie desLichts über Wien um weniger als 5 % zugenommen hat. Die Menge des künstlichen Lichts über Wien hat sich nach dem steilem Anstieg der Jahre 2009 bis 2014 auf hohem Niveau eingependelt..Es besteht ein enger Zusammenhang zwischen Licht- und Luftverschmutzung. Über 10 Jahre bestehende Korrelationen von Lichtimmissions- und Luftgüteindikatoren bestätigen dies. Auf dieser Erkenntnis beruht eine auf standardisierte Luft-güte-Bedingungen normierte Angabe der Globalstrahlung, mit der direkter auf die von der Stadt eingebrachten Lichtmenge geschlossen werden kann.Der Kunstlichthalo über Wien wurde mit einer neuen Methode vollständiger berechnet und enthält demnach deutlich mehr Energie als bisher angenommen. 500 Gigawattstunden und 100.000 Tonnen CO2-Äquivalent pro Jahr müssen als typischer Wert für eine Untergrenze angenommen werden.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Verein Kuffner-Sternwarte Place of Publication Vienna Editor  
  Language German Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3033  
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Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Moonlight Without The Moon Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Earth, Moon, and Planets Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 85/86 Issue Pages 517-522  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Light pollution, the alteration of the natural light levels in the night environment produced by man-made light, is one of the most rapidly increasing threats to the natural environment. The fast growth of the night sky brightness due to light pollution not only is damaging the perception of the starry sky but it is silently altering even the perception of the moonlight nights by mankind. The cyclic alternation between the new Moon's dark sky with thousand of stars and the moonlight sky, less dark but always full of stars among which our satellite moves, is rapidly changing toward a perennial artificial moonlight due to the man-made light wasted in the atmosphere. The Moon periodically will appear inside the same perennially luminous sky from which stars will have almost disappeared. Here we present a map showing artificial moonlight levels in North America and some statistical results.  
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  ISSN 0167-9295 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 174  
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Author Falchi, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Campaign of sky brightness and extinction measurements using a portable CCD camera: Sky brightness and extinction measurements Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 412 Issue 1 Pages 33-48  
  Keywords sky brightness; monitoring; light pollution; skyglow  
  Abstract In this paper, we present the results of a 12-yr campaign devoted to monitoring the sky brightness affected by different levels of light pollution. Different sites characterized by different altitudes and atmospheric transparency have been considered. The standard photometric Johnson B and V bands were used. An extinction measurement was performed for each site and each night, along with a calibration of the instrument. These measurements have allowed us to build sky brightness maps of the hemisphere above each observing site; each map contains up to 200 data points spread around the sky. We have found a stop in zenith sky brightness growth at the two sites where a time series exists. Using zenith sky brightness measurements taken with and without extensive snow coverage, we weighted the importance of direct versus indirect flux in producing sky glow at several sites.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 190  
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using two light-pollution models to investigate artificial sky radiances at Canary Islands observatories: Light-pollution models and artificial sky radiances Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 422 Issue 1 Pages 819-830  
  Keywords Keywords: radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: observational; site testing  
  Abstract Astronomical observations are increasingly limited by light pollution, which is a product of the over-illumination of the night sky. To predict both the angular distribution of scattered light and the ground-reaching radiative fluxes, a set of models has been introduced in recent decades. Two distinct numerical tools, MSNsRAu and ILLUMINA, are compared in this paper, with the aim of identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The numerical experiment comprises the simulation of spectral radiances in the region of the Canary Islands. In particular, the light fields near the Roque de los Muchachos and Teide observatories are computed under various turbidity conditions. It is shown that ILLUMINA has enhanced accuracy at low elevation angles. However, ILLUMINA is time-consuming because of the two scattering orders incorporated into the calculation scheme. Under low-turbidity conditions and for zenith angles smaller than 70° the two models agree well, and thus can be successfully applied to typical cloudless situations at the majority of observatories. MSNsRAu is well optimized for large-scale simulations. In particular, the grid size is adapted dynamically depending on the distance between a light source and a hypothetical observer. This enables rapid numerical modelling for large territories. MSNsRAu is also well suited for the mass modelling of night-sky radiances after ground-based light sources are hypothetically changed. This enables an optimum design of public lighting systems and a time-efficient evaluation of the optical effects related to different lamp spectra or different lamp distributions. ILLUMINA provides two diagnostic geographical maps to help local authorities concerned about light-pollution control. The first map allows the identification of the relative contribution of each ground element to the observed sky radiance at a given viewing angle, while the second map gives the sensitivity, basically saying how each ground element contributes per lumen installed.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 256  
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