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Author Ikeno, T.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night disrupts the short-day response in Siberian hamsters Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol  
  Volume (down) 197 Issue Pages 56-64  
  Keywords 2,4-dinitro-1-flourobenzene; Dnfb; Dth; Eya3; Eyes absent 3; GnIH; GnRH; Immune function; Ld; Lps; Light pollution; Pt; Pelage; Per1; Period1; Photoperiodism; Rfrp; RFamide-related peptide; Scn; Sd; Seasonality; Tsh; TSH receptor; Tshr; dLAN; delayed-type hypersensitivity; dim light at night; gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone; gonadotropin-releasing hormone; lipopolysaccharide; long days; pars tuberalis; short days; suprachiasmatic nuclei; thyroid-stimulating hormone  
  Abstract Photoperiodic regulation of physiology, morphology, and behavior is crucial for many animals to survive seasonally variable conditions unfavorable for reproduction and survival. The photoperiodic response in mammals is mediated by nocturnal secretion of melatonin under the control of a circadian clock. However, artificial light at night caused by recent urbanization may disrupt the circadian clock, as well as the photoperiodic response by blunting melatonin secretion. Here we examined the effect of dim light at night (dLAN) (5lux of light during the dark phase) on locomotor activity rhythms and short-day regulation of reproduction, body mass, pelage properties, and immune responses of male Siberian hamsters. Short-day animals reduced gonadal and body mass, decreased spermatid nuclei and sperm numbers, molted to a whiter pelage, and increased pelage density compared to long-day animals. However, animals that experienced short days with dLAN did not show these short-day responses. Moreover, short-day specific immune responses were altered in dLAN conditions. The nocturnal activity pattern was blunted in dLAN hamsters, consistent with the observation that dLAN changed expression of the circadian clock gene, Period1. In addition, we demonstrated that expression levels of genes implicated in the photoperiodic response, Mel-1a melatonin receptor, Eyes absent 3, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, were higher in dLAN animals than those in short-day animals. These results suggest that dLAN disturbs the circadian clock function and affects the molecular mechanisms of the photoperiodic response.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: randy.nelson@osumc.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24362257 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 82  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author McFadden, E.; Jones, M.E.; Schoemaker, M.J.; Ashworth, A.; Swerdlow, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Relationship Between Obesity and Exposure to Light at Night: Cross-Sectional Analyses of Over 100,000 Women in the Breakthrough Generations Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol  
  Volume (down) 180 Issue 3 Pages 245-250  
  Keywords body mass index; circadian rhythm; light at night; obesity; sleep; sleeping habits  
  Abstract There has been a worldwide epidemic of obesity in recent decades. In animal studies, there is convincing evidence that light exposure causes weight gain, even when calorie intake and physical activity are held constant. Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms by exposure to light at night (LAN) might be one mechanism contributing to the rise in obesity, but it has not been well-investigated in humans. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the association between exposure to LAN and obesity in questionnaire data from over 100,000 women in the Breakthrough Generations Study, a cohort study of women aged 16 years or older who were living in the United Kingdom and recruited during 2003-2012. The odds of obesity, measured using body mass index, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio, and waist circumference, increased with increasing levels of LAN exposure (P < 0.001), even after adjustment for potential confounders such as sleep duration, alcohol intake, physical activity, and current smoking. We found a significant association between LAN exposure and obesity which was not explained by potential confounders we could measure. While the possibility of residual confounding cannot be excluded, the pattern is intriguing, accords with the results of animal experiments, and warrants further investigation.  
  Address  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-9262 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24875371 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 166  
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Duffy, J.P.; Gaston, S.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human alteration of natural light cycles: causes and ecological consequences Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume (down) 176 Issue 4 Pages 917-931  
  Keywords Ecology; Day; Diurnal; Night; Nocturnal; Skyglow; Review  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is profoundly altering natural light cycles, particularly as perceived by many organisms, over extensive areas of the globe. This alteration comprises the introduction of light at night at places and times at which it has not previously occurred, and with different spectral signatures. Given the long geological periods for which light cycles have previously been consistent, this constitutes a novel environmental pressure, and one for which there is evidence for biological effects that span from molecular to community level. Here we provide a synthesis of understanding of the form and extent of this alteration, some of the key consequences for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, interactions and synergies with other anthropogenic pressures on the environment, major uncertainties, and future prospects and management options. This constitutes a compelling example of the need for a thoroughly interdisciplinary approach to understanding and managing the impact of one particular anthropogenic pressure. The former requires insights that span molecular biology to ecosystem ecology, and the latter contributions of biologists, policy makers and engineers.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK, k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25239105 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 371  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Levin, N.; Johansen, K.; Hacker, J.M.; Phinn, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A new source for high spatial resolution night time images -- The EROS-B commercial satellite Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume (down) 149 Issue Pages 1-12  
  Keywords Night lights; EROS-B; Land cover; Land use; Fine spatial resolution; remote sensing; satellite; light at night  
  Abstract City lights present one of humankind's most unique footprints on Earth as seen from space. Resulting light pollution from artificial lights obscures the night sky for astronomy and has negative impacts on biodiversity as well as on human health. However, remote sensing studies of night lights to date have been mostly limited to coarse spatial resolution sensors such as the DMSP-OLS. Here we present a new source for high spatial resolution mapping of night lights from space, derived from a commercial satellite. We tasked the Israeli EROS-B satellite to acquire two night-time light images (at a spatial resolution of 1 m) of Brisbane, Australia, and analyzed their radiometric quality and content with respect to land cover and land use. The spatial distribution of night lights as imaged by EROS-B corresponded with night-time images acquired by an airborne camera, although EROS-B was not as sensitive to low light levels. Using land cover and land use data at the statistical local area level, we could statistically explain 89% of the variability in night-time lights. Arterial roads and commercial and service areas were found to be some of the brightest land use types. Overall, we found that EROS-B imagery provides fine spatial resolution images of night lights, opening new avenues for studying light pollution in cities worldwide.  
  Address Department of Geography, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 307  
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Author Zhou, Y.; Smith, S.J.; Elvidge, C.D.; Zhao, K.; Thomson, A.; Imhoff, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A cluster-based method to map urban area from DMSP/OLS nightlights Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume (down) 147 Issue Pages 173-185  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 853  
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