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Author Stracey, C. M.; Wynn, B.; Robinson, S. K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution allows the northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) to feed nestlings after dark Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The Wilson Journal of Ornithology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 126 Issue 2 Pages 366-369  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract We investigated whether Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) alter their nocturnal foraging behavior in areas with artificial light at night. We observed mockingbirds after sunset at six study sites that varied in levels of artificial light. We hypothesized that birds at the parking lot and residential sites would feed their nestlings later at night because of light pollution. The average time past sunset that birds across all sites continued to feed nestlings was positively correlated with average light level around the nest. Mockingbirds in the parking lot fed their nestlings ∼15 mins later than those in the other sites, suggesting that this abundant urban species can exploit light pollution.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1603  
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Author Ji, L.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, X.; Yu, Y.; Shen, L.; Wang, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Harmful effects on organism induced by light of different wavelength and power Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Optik Abbreviated Journal Optik  
  Volume (down) 125 Issue 19 Pages 5808-5812  
  Keywords LED; Wavelength; Power; Microvessel; Absorption spectrum  
  Abstract Although a variety of experiments on light exposure stress to animals significantly affect the retina and circulation system, it is still unknown the relationship between the different extent of harmful effect on organism and light with different wavelengths and power. This study is aimed to investigate the changes to microblood vessel and the variations in serum absorption spectrum. LED light of different wavelength and power were used. The results show that power has a relatively larger impact on physiological indexes than wavelength. The extents of these variations are relatively different according to the regression equations. All of these stimulations cause damage to mice physiological conditions, producing some extent of light pollution. The research findings supply the guideline for the effective prevention of the harmful effect on organism by light pollution from the view of science of optical life science.  
  Address College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, People's Republic of China  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 362  
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Author Shang, Y.-M.; Wang, G.-S.; Sliney, D.; Yang, C.-H.; Lee, L.-L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume (down) 122 Issue 3 Pages 269-276  
  Keywords LED; light emitting diode; lighting; retina; Eye Diseases; blue light; Blue-rich light sources  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) deliver higher levels of blue light to the retina than do conventional domestic light sources. Chronic exposure to high-intensity light (2,000-10,000 lux) has previously been found to result in light-induced retinal injury, but chronic exposure to relatively low-intensity (750 lux) light has not been previously assessed with LEDs in a rodent model. OBJECTIVE: We examined LED-induced retinal neuronal cell damage in the Sprague-Dawley rat using functional, histological, and biochemical measurements. METHODS: We used blue LEDs (460 nm) and full-spectrum white LEDs, coupled with matching compact fluorescent lights, for exposures. Pathological examinations included electroretinogram, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also measured free radical production in the retina to determine the oxidative stress level. RESULTS: H&E staining and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors, which indicated blue-light induced photochemical injury of the retina. Free radical production in the retina was increased in LED-exposed groups. IHC staining demonstrated that oxidative stress was associated with retinal injury. Although we found serious retinal light injury in LED groups, the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) groups showed moderate to mild injury. CONCLUSION: Our results raise questions about adverse effects on the retina from chronic exposure to LED light compared with other light sources that have less blue light. Thus, we suggest a precautionary approach with regard to the use of blue-rich “white” LEDs for general lighting. CITATION: Shang YM, Wang GS, Sliney D, Yang CH, Lee LL. 2014. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model. Environ Health Perspect 122:269-276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307294.  
  Address Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan  
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  ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:24362357; PMCID:PMC3948037 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 324  
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Author Bennie, J.J.; Duffy, J.P.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume (down) 111 Issue 38 Pages 13727-13732  
  Keywords cathemeral; night  
  Abstract Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep-wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in “illuminated activity time” constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species' future distributions.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:25225371 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 373  
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Author Warrant, E.; Oskarsson, M.; Malm, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Remarkable Visual Abilities of Nocturnal Insects: Neural Principles and Bioinspired Night-Vision Algorithms Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the IEEE Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 102 Issue 10 Pages 1411 - 1426  
  Keywords Animals; Vision  
  Abstract Despite their tiny eyes and brains, nocturnal insects have remarkable visual abilities. Recent work – particularly on fast-flying moths and bees and on ball-rolling dung beetles – has shown that nocturnal insects are able to distinguish colors, to detect faint movements, to learn visual landmarks, to orient to the faint pattern of polarized light produced by the moon, and to navigate using the stars. These impressive visual abilities are the result of exquisitely adapted eyes and visual systems, the product of millions of years of evolution. Even though we are only at the threshold of understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for reliable nocturnal vision, growing evidence suggests that the neural summation of photons in space and time is critically important: even though vision in dim light becomes necessarily coarser and slower, those details that are preserved are seen clearly. These benefits of spatio-temporal summation have obvious implications for dim-light video technologies. In addition to reviewing the visual adaptations of nocturnal insects, we here describe an algorithm inspired by nocturnal visual processing strategies – from amplification of primary image signals to optimized spatio-temporal summation to reduce noise – that dramatically increases the reliability of video collected in dim light, including the preservation of color.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 376  
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