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Author Price, B.; Baker, E.
Title NightLife: A cheap, robust, LED based light trap for collecting aquatic insects in remote areas Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biodiversity Data Journal Abbreviated Journal (up) Bdj
Volume 4 Issue Pages e7648
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting
Abstract Background

There are approximately one hundred thousand aquatic insect species currently known to science and this figure is likely a significant underestimation. The ecology of aquatic insect groups has been studied due to their role as bioindicators of water quality and in the case of Diptera, their role as vectors of disease. Light trapping targets emergent adults, using mercury vapour bulbs or actinic fluorescent tubes, however these light sources are unsuitable for sampling remote regions due to their power requirements, which limit their mobility. Most insects studied have three types of photoreceptors corresponding to UV, blue and green light.

New information

We describe the NightLife: a cheap, robust, portable, LED based light source which targets insect trichromatic vision, is capable of autonomous operation and is powered by a single AA battery. Field trials show that the NightLife is capable of collecting sufficient samples of 12 insect orders, including all aquatic orders commonly collected by traditional light trapping and compares favourably with actinic fluorescent tubes and white LEDs. Future development in LED technology will likely result in LEDs replacing traditional light sources for collecting insects more widely.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1314-2836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1398
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Author Brady, A.; Willis, B.; Harder, L.; Vizel, P.
Title Lunar Phase Modulates Circadian Gene Expression Cycles in the Broadcast Spawning Coral Acropora millepora Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal (up) Biol Bullet
Volume 230 Issue 2 Pages 130-142
Keywords Animals; corals; Acropora millepora; lunar cycle; Circadian Rhythm; gene expression; moon
Abstract Many broadcast spawning corals in multiple reef regions release their gametes with incredible temporal precision just once per year, using the lunar cycle to set the night of spawning. Moonlight, rather than tides or other lunar-regulated processes, is thought to be the proximate factor responsible for linking the night of spawning to the phase of the Moon. We compared patterns of gene expression among colonies of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora at different phases of the lunar cycle, and when they were maintained under one of three experimentally simulated lunar lighting treatments: i) lunar lighting conditions matching those on the reef, or lunar patterns mimicking either ii) constant full Moon conditions, or iii) constant new Moon conditions. Normal lunar illumination was found to shift both the level and timing of clock gene transcription cycles between new and full moons, with the peak hour of expression for a number of genes occurring earlier in the evening under a new Moon when compared to a full Moon. When the normal lunar cycle is replaced with nighttime patterns equivalent to either a full Moon or a new Moon every evening, the normal monthlong changes in the level of expression are destroyed for most genes. In combination, these results indicate that daily changes in moonlight that occur over the lunar cycle are essential for maintaining normal lunar periodicity of clock gene transcription, and this may play a role in regulating spawn timing. These data also show that low levels of light pollution may have an impact on coral biological clocks.
Address Department of Biological Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada; pvize(at)ucalgary.ca
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Marine Biological Laboratory Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1476
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Borniger, J.C.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Light at night, clocks and health: from humans to wild organisms Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal (up) Biol Lett
Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 20160015
Keywords Commentary; Ecology
Abstract The increasing use of electric lights has modified the natural light environment dramatically, posing novel challenges to both humans and wildlife. Indeed, several biomedical studies have linked artificial light at night to the disruption of circadian rhythms, with important consequences for human health, such as the increasing occurrence of metabolic syndromes, cancer and reduced immunity. In wild animals, light pollution is associated with changes in circadian behaviour, reproduction and predator-prey interactions, but we know little about the underlying physiological mechanisms and whether wild species suffer the same health problems as humans. In order to fill this gap, we advocate the need for integrating ecological studies in the field, with chronobiological approaches to identify and characterize pathways that may link temporal disruption caused by light at night and potential health and fitness consequences.
Address Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26888917 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1360
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Author Altermatt, F.; Ebert, D.
Title Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal (up) Biol Lett
Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 20160111
Keywords Lepidoptera; Yponomeuta; adaptation; environmental change; natural selection
Abstract The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks.
Address Department of Environmental Sciences, Zoology, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27072407 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1420
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Author Bliss-Ketchum, L.L.; de Rivera, C.E.; Turner, B.C.; Weisbaum, D.M.
Title The effect of artificial light on wildlife use of a passage structure Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal (up) Biological Conservation
Volume 199 Issue Pages 25-28
Keywords Animals; animal movement; Columbia black-tailed deer; deer; Odocoileus hemionus columbianus; deer mouse; Peromyscus maniculatus; opossum; Didelphis virginiana; artificial light at night
Abstract Barriers to animal movement can isolate populations, impacting their genetic diversity, susceptibility to disease, and access to resources. Barriers to movement may be caused by artificial light, which is known to disrupt bird, sea turtle, and bat behavior, but few studies have experimentally investigated the effects of artificial light on movement for a suite of terrestrial vertebrates. Therefore, we studied the effect of ecological light pollution on animal usage of a bridge under-road passage structure. On a weekly basis, sections of the structure were subjected to different light treatments including no light added, followed by a Reference period when lights were off in all the structure sections. Sand track data revealed use by 23 mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, nine of which had > 30 tracks for species-level analysis. Columbia black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) traversed under unlit bridge sections much less when neighboring sections were lit compared to when none were, suggesting avoidance due to any nearby presence of artificial light. Similarly, deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and opossum (Didelphis virginiana) track paths were less frequent in the lit sections than the ambient. Crossing was correlated with temporal or spatial factors but not light for three of the other species. These findings suggest that artificial light may be reducing habitat connectivity for some species though not providing a strong barrier for others. Such information is needed to inform mitigation of habitat fragmentation in the face of expanding urbanization.
Address Department of Environmental Science & Management, Portland State University, PO Box 751, Portland, OR 97207, USA; blissket(at)pdx.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1445
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