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Author Canazei, M.; Pohl, W.; Bliem, H.R.; Weiss, E.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acute effects of different light spectra on simulated night-shift work without circadian alignment Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal (up) Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 303-317  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Short-wavelength and short-wavelength-enhanced light have a strong impact on night-time working performance, subjective feelings of alertness and circadian physiology. In the present study, we investigated acute effects of white light sources with varied reduced portions of short wavelengths on cognitive and visual performance, mood and cardiac output.Thirty-one healthy subjects were investigated in a balanced cross-over design under three light spectra in a simulated night-shift paradigm without circadian adaptation.Exposure to the light spectrum with the largest attenuation of short wavelengths reduced heart rate and increased vagal cardiac parameters during the night compared to the other two light spectra without deleterious effects on sustained attention, working memory and subjective alertness. In addition, colour discrimination capability was significantly decreased under this light source.To our knowledge, the present study for the first time demonstrates that polychromatic white light with reduced short wavelengths, fulfilling current lighting standards for indoor illumination, may have a positive impact on cardiac physiology of night-shift workers without detrimental consequences for cognitive performance and alertness.  
  Address c Department of Psychology , University of Graz , Graz , Austria  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27579732 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1519  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kyba, C.C.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Defense Meteorological Satellite Program data should no longer be used for epidemiological studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal (up) Chronobiology International  
  Volume 33 Issue 8 Pages 943-945  
  Keywords Commentary; Human Health; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1459  
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Author Morag, I.; Ohlsson, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cycled light in the intensive care unit for preterm and low birth weight infants Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal (up) Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages Cd006982  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Potential benefits and harms of different lighting in neonatal units have not been quantified. OBJECTIVES: * To determine effectiveness and safety of cycled light (CL) (approximately 12 hours of light on and 12 hours of light off) for growth in preterm infants at three and six months' corrected age (CA).* In separate analyses, to compare effects of CL with those of irregularly dimmed light (DL) or near darkness (ND), and effects of CL with those of continuous bright light (CBL), on growth in preterm infants at three and six months' CA.* To assess, in subgroup analyses, the effectiveness and safety of CL (vs control interventions (DL, ND and CBL)) introduced at different postmenstrual ages (PMAs) – before 32 weeks', at 32 weeks' and from 36 weeks' PMA – and to compare effectiveness and safety of CL for small for gestational age (GA) infants versus appropriately grown infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 12), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to January 2016), Embase (1980 to January 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to January 2016). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of CL versus ND or CBL in preterm and low birth weight infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed data collection and analyses according to the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified one additional study enrolling 38 participants for inclusion in this update, for a total of nine studies reporting on 544 infants. In general, the quality of the studies was low, mainly owing to lack of blinding and small sample sizes.Six studies enrolling 424 infants compared CL versus ND. No study reported on weight at three or six months. One study (n = 40) found no statistically significant difference in weight at four months between CL and ND groups. In another study (n = 62), the ratio of day-night activity before discharge favoured the CL group (mean difference (MD) 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.19), indicating 18% more activity during the day than during the night in the CL group compared with the ND group. Two studies (n = 189) reported on retinopathy of prematurity (stage >/= 3) and reported no statistically significant differences between CL and ND groups (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.53, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.11, I2 = 0%; typical risk difference (RD) -0.09, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.01, I2 = 0%). Two studies (n = 77) reported length of hospital stay (days) and noted a significant reduction in length of stay between CL and ND groups favouring the CL group (weighted mean difference (WMD) -13 days, 95% CI -23 to -2, I2 = 0%; no heterogeneity). The quality of the evidence according to GRADE was low for this outcome. One study (n = 37) reported less crying at 11 weeks' corrected age (CA) in the CL group compared with the ND group (MD -0.57 hours/24 h, 95% CI -1.09 to -0.05). Tests for heterogeneity were not applicable.Three studies enrolling 120 infants compared CL versus CBL. Two studies (n = 79) reported significantly shorter length of stay in the CL group compared with the CBL group (WMD -16.5 days, 95% CI -26.2 to -6.8, I2 = 0%; no heterogeneity). The quality of the evidence according to GRADE was low for this outcome. One study (n = 41) reported higher mean weight at three months' CA among infants cared for in the CL nursery (P value < 0.02) and a lower mean number of hours spent awake in 24 hours at three months of age (P value < 0.005). Data could not be entered into RevMan or GRADE. One study (n = 41) reported shorter time on the ventilator in the CL compared with the CBL group (MD -18.2 days, 95% CI -31.40 to -5.0). One study (n = 41) reported a shorter time to first oral feeding in the CL group (MD -6.8 days, 95% CI -13.29 to -0.31). We identified no safety issues. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Trials assessing the effects of CL have enrolled 544 infants. No study reported on our primary outcome of weight at three or six months. Results from one additional study strengthen our findings that CL versus CBL shortens length of stay, as does CL versus ND. The quality of the evidence on both comparisons for this outcome according to GRADE was low. Future research should focus on comparing CL versus ND.  
  Address The Edmond & Lily Safra Children's Hospital Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1361-6137 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27508358 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1506  
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Author Delhey, K.; Peters, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Implications for conservation of anthropogenic impacts on visual communication and camouflage Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal (up) Conserv Biol  
  Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 30-39  
  Keywords Conservation  
  Abstract Anthropogenic environmental impacts can disrupt the sensory environment of animals and affect important processes from mate choice to predator avoidance. Currently these effects are best understood for auditory and chemo-sensory modalities and recent reviews highlight their importance for conservation. Here we summarise how anthropogenic changes to the visual environment (ambient light, transmission, backgrounds) affect visual communication and camouflage, and highlight implications for conservation. These implications are particularly evident for disrupted camouflage due to its tight links with survival while the conservation importance of impaired visual communication is less well-documented. Such effects can be potentially severe when they affect critical processes such as pollination or species recognition. However, when impaired mate choice does not lead to hybridization, the conservation consequences are less clear. We suggest that the demographic effects of human impacts on visual communication and camouflage will be particularly strong when: (a) human-induced modifications to the visual environment are evolutionary novel, that is, very different from natural variation, (b) affected species and populations have low levels of intraspecific (genotypic and phenotypic) variation and low levels of behavioural, sensory or physiological plasticity and (c) the processes affected are directly related to survival (camouflage), species recognition, or number of offspring produced, rather than offspring quality or attractiveness. The evidence summarized here suggests that anthropogenic effects on the visual environment might be of similar conservation concerns as those on other sensory modalities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address 25 Rainforest Walk, School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, 3800, Clayton, Victoria, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27604521 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1525  
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Author Stockl, A.L.; O'Carroll, D.C.; Warrant, E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neural Summation in the Hawkmoth Visual System Extends the Limits of Vision in Dim Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal (up) Curr Biol  
  Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 821-826  
  Keywords Vision; Animals  
  Abstract Most of the world's animals are active in dim light and depend on good vision for the tasks of daily life. Many have evolved visual adaptations that permit a performance superior to that of manmade imaging devices [1]. In insects, a major model visual system, nocturnal species show impressive visual abilities ranging from flight control [2, 3], to color discrimination [4, 5], to navigation using visual landmarks [6-8] or dim celestial compass cues [9, 10]. In addition to optical adaptations that improve their sensitivity in dim light [11], neural summation of light in space and time-which enhances the coarser and slower features of the scene at the expense of noisier finer and faster features-has been suggested to improve sensitivity in theoretical [12-14], anatomical [15-17], and behavioral [18-20] studies. How these summation strategies function neurally is, however, presently unknown. Here, we quantified spatial and temporal summation in the motion vision pathway of a nocturnal hawkmoth. We show that spatial and temporal summation combine supralinearly to substantially increase contrast sensitivity and visual information rate over four decades of light intensity, enabling hawkmoths to see at light levels 100 times dimmer than without summation. Our results reveal how visual motion is calculated neurally in dim light and how spatial and temporal summation improve sensitivity while simultaneously maximizing spatial and temporal resolution, thus extending models of insect motion vision derived predominantly from diurnal flies. Moreover, the summation strategies we have revealed may benefit manmade vision systems optimized for variable light levels [21].  
  Address Department of Biology, University of Lund, Solvegatan 35, 22362 Lund, Sweden  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26948877 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1374  
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