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Author Shih, K.-T.; Liu, J.-S.; Shyu, F.; Yeh, S.-L.; Chen, H.H.
Title Blocking harmful blue light while preserving image color appearance Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication ACM Transactions on Graphics Abbreviated Journal Tog
Volume 35 Issue 6 Pages 1-10
Keywords Lighting; Vision
Abstract Recent study in vision science has shown that blue light in a certain frequency band affects human circadian rhythm and impairs our health. Although applying a light blocker to an image display can block the harmful blue light, it inevitably makes an image look like an aged photo. In this paper, we show that it is possible to reduce harmful blue light while preserving the blue appearance of an image. Moreover, we optimize the spectral transmittance profile of blue light blocker based on psychophysical data and develop a color compensation algorithm to minimize color distortion. A prototype using notch filters is built as a proof of concept.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0730-0301 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1640
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Author Daoud-Opit, S.; Jones, D.N.
Title Guided by the light: Roost choice and behaviour of urban Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus) Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication European Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 72-80
Keywords Animals
Abstract 1. The formation of large communal roosts is a conspicuous phenomenon associated with a wide range of bird species successfully exploiting urban environments. In many Australian cities, the abundance of the Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus), a native parrot, has increased markedly in recent decades, with the species roosting in very large numbers within suburban sites. These roosting locations are noisy and cause significant fouling of the land beneath, resulting in conflict with humans.

2. We investigated the selection of roosting sites in this species in Brisbane, Australia, by comparing characteristics of both the general sites of these roosts as well as individual trees used within roosting sites and trees that were avoided.

3. Lorikeets used a wide variety of tree types for roosting but demonstrated a clear preference for clumped trees within sparsely treed areas that received significantly more artificial light at night than otherwise suitable sites and trees nearby.

4. These features of roosting sites may enhance the detection of nocturnal predators by Rainbow Lorikeets, suggesting a potential positive impact of anthropogenic lighting. Our findings provide valuable insights into the management of roost-related conflicts in urban areas. We encourage further investigations into the possible benefits of artificial light.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1339-8474 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1641
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Author Azam, C.; Le Viol, I.; Julien, J.-F.; Bas, Y.; Kerbiriou, C.
Title Disentangling the relative effect of light pollution, impervious surfaces and intensive agriculture on bat activity with a national-scale monitoring program Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol
Volume 31 Issue 10 Pages 2471-2483
Keywords Animals
Abstract Context

Light pollution is a global change affecting a major proportion of global land surface. Although the impacts of Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) have been documented locally for many taxa, the extent of effect of ALAN at a landscape scale on biodiversity is unknown.

Objectives

We characterized the landscape-scale impacts of ALAN on 4 insectivorous bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Eptesicus serotinus, Nyctalus leisleri, and compared the extent of their effects to other major land-use pressures.

Methods

We used a French national-scale monitoring program recording bat activity among 2-km car transect surveys, and extracted landscape characteristics around transects with satellite and land cover layers. For each species, we performed multi-model averaging at 4 landscape scales (from 200 to 1000 m buffers around transects) to compare the relative effects of the average radiance, the proportion of impervious surface and the proportion of intensive agriculture.

Results

For all species, ALAN had a stronger negative effect than impervious surface at the 4 landscape scales tested. This effect was weaker than the effect of intensive agriculture. The negative effect of ALAN was significant for P. pipistrellus, P. kuhlii and E. serotinus, but not for N. leisleri. The effect of impervious surface varied among species while intensive agriculture had a significant negative effect on the 4 species.

Conclusion

Our results highlight the need to consider the impacts of ALAN on biodiversity in land-use planning and suggest that using only impervious surface as a proxy for urbanization may lead to underestimated impacts on biodiversity.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0921-2973 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1697
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Author Tähkämö, L.; Räsänen, R.-S.; Halonen, L.
Title Life cycle cost comparison of high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires in street lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Abbreviated Journal Int J Life Cycle Assess
Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 137-145
Keywords Economics; Lighting
Abstract Purpose

Cities and municipalities are facing a great challenge in 2015 when the widely used high-pressure mercury lamps are banned from the European Union market. This results to approximately 18 million lamps to be changed to other light source technologies suitable for outdoor lighting. The most probable replacement technologies are high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires. The article provides economic information for the cities and municipalities to use when making the decision on the choice of technology.

Methods

A life cycle cost analysis was conducted for the high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires including the investment costs, operating costs and residual value over 30-year time frame. The investment costs included the purchase prices of all parts, freight and installation costs. The operating costs accounted for the energy and maintenance costs, and the residual value was calculated using the 25 % estimate of the initial purchase price. The approach of the calculation considered only the luminaires to be installed; the scope of the study excluded the previous installations, which may contain any light source technology or be inexistent. The analysis excluded the poles, wiring and other infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis additionally studied six scenarios, in which relevant calculation parameters were changed.

Results and discussion

The life cycle cost analysis of the two road lighting luminaire technologies showed that the HPS luminaire was normally a more economical solution compared to the light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire. The total life cycle costs of the HPS luminaire were 45 % lower than those of the LED luminaire per kilometre. However, the scenarios in the sensitivity analysis indicated that there were circumstances where the cost-efficiency of the LED luminaire was particularly improved. In order for the LED technology to become fully competitive against the HPS technology, several scenarios have to take place simultaneously. The life cycle costs of the LED luminaire were reduced compared to the HPS luminaire by increased electricity price, exclusion of spot replacements, reduced purchase price and modularity of the LED luminaire.

Conclusions

Despite the greater luminous efficacy, the LED luminaire was found to have greater life cycle costs compared to the HPS luminaire. However, the LED technology is expected to become more economical in the future due to the development in luminous efficacy, improved product quality, reduction in the purchase price and the enhanced competition in the LED segment. Despite the unfavourable cost structure, the LED technology offers other benefits, such as lighting controls and colour characteristics.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1725
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Author Li, D.; Zhao, X.; Li, X.
Title Remote sensing of human beings – a perspective from nighttime light Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Geo-spatial Information Science Abbreviated Journal Geo-spatial Information Science
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 69-79
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract City lights, fishing boats, and oil fields are the major sources of nighttime lights, therefore the nighttime light images provide a unique source to map human beings and their activities from outer space. While most of the scholars focused on application of nighttime light remote sensing in urbanization and regional development, the actual fields are much wider. This paper summarized the applications of nighttime light remote sensing into fields such as the estimation of socioeconomic parameters, monitoring urbanization, evaluation of important events, analyzing light pollution, fishery, etc. For estimation of socioeconomic parameters, the most promising progress is that Gross Domestic Product and its growth rate have been estimated with statistical data and nighttime light data using econometric models. For monitoring urbanization, urban area and its dynamics can be extracted using different classification methods, and spatial analysis has been employed to map urban agglomeration. As sharp changes of nighttime light are associated with important socioeconomic events, the images have been used to evaluate humanitarian disasters, especially in the current Syrian and Iraqi wars. Light pollution is another hotspot of nighttime light application, as the night light is related to some diseases and abnormal behavior of animals, and the nighttime light images can provide light pollution information on large scales so that it is much easier to analyze the effects of light pollutions. In each field, we listed typical cases of the applications. At last, future studies of nighttime light remote sensing have been predicted.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1009-5020 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1878
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