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Author Wakefield, A.; Broyles, M.; Stone, E.L.; Jones, G.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Experimentally comparing the attractiveness of domestic lights to insects: Do LEDs attract fewer insects than conventional light types? Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 6 Issue 22 Pages 8028-8036  
  Keywords ecology; Lighting  
  Abstract LED lighting is predicted to constitute 70% of the outdoor and residential lighting markets by 2020. While the use of LEDs promotes energy and cost savings relative to traditional lighting technologies, little is known about the effects these broad-spectrum “white” lights will have on wildlife, human health, animal welfare, and disease transmission. We conducted field experiments to compare the relative attractiveness of four commercially available “domestic” lights, one traditional (tungsten filament) and three modern (compact fluorescent, “cool-white” LED and “warm-white” LED), to aerial insects, particularly Diptera. We found that LEDs attracted significantly fewer insects than other light sources, but found no significant difference in attraction between the “cool-” and “warm-white” LEDs. Fewer flies were attracted to LEDs than alternate light sources, including fewer Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Use of LEDs has the potential to mitigate disturbances to wildlife and occurrences of insect-borne diseases relative to competing lighting technologies. However, we discuss the risks associated with broad-spectrum lighting and net increases in lighting resulting from reduced costs of LED technology.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1541  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Liefting, M.; Cosijn, J.; Ellers, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Synergistic effect of daily temperature fluctuations and matching light-dark cycle enhances population growth and synchronizes oviposition behavior in a soil arthropod Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Insect Physiology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Insect Physiology  
  Volume 96 Issue in press Pages 108-114  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating temperatures rather than a constant temperature regime. The benefit of fluctuating temperature has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with temperature. Daily temperature rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking daily temperature fluctuations with light and dark phases e.g. to anticipate the change in temperature. Such synergistic effects have primarily been studied in the light of activity patterns and gene expression, but have not yet been shown to extend to population dynamics and aspects of individual fitness like oviposition behavior. We therefore explored possible synergistic effects on life history traits of the springtail Orchesella cincta. We first test the primary effect of ecologically relevant temperature fluctuations of different amplitudes on population growth and total population mass. The slowest population growth was observed in the constant temperature regime treatment and the highest population growth in the regime with high amplitude fluctuations. In a second experiment, population growth and oviposition rhythm were measured under four different regimes; a constant light and temperature regime, thermoperiod only, photoperiod only and thermoperiod and photoperiod aligned as under natural conditions. The regime in which thermoperiod was aligned with photoperiod resulted in a higher population growth than could be realized by either factor alone. Also, significantly fewer eggs were laid in the constant temperature/light regime than in the other three regimes, strongly suggesting that this regime is stressful to O. cincta. Additionally, the fraction of eggs laid at night was highest in the regime with the combined temperature and light cycle. In conclusion, our results show that under these experimental conditions there is a synergistic effect of daily temperature fluctuations in combination with light/dark phases that can considerably influence important life history traits and affect behavior. Such effects are likely to be relevant under natural conditions.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-1910 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1542  
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Author Raap, T.; Casasole, G.; Costantini, D.; AbdElgawad, H.; Asard, H.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 35626  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1543  
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Author Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in urban and rural areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages 160541  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The growing emissions of artificial light to the atmosphere are producing, among other effects, a significant increase of the night sky brightness (NSB) above its expected natural values. A permanent sensor network has been deployed in Galicia (northwest of Iberian peninsula) to monitor the anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in a countrywide area. The network is composed of 14 detectors integrated in automated weather stations of MeteoGalicia, the Galician public meteorological agency. Zenithal NSB readings are taken every minute and the results are openly available in real time for researchers, interested stakeholders and the public at large through a dedicated website. The measurements allow one to assess the extent of the loss of the natural night in urban, periurban, transition and dark rural sites, as well as its daily and monthly time courses. Two metrics are introduced here to characterize the disruption of the night darkness across the year: the significant magnitude (m1/3) and the moonlight modulation factor (γ). The significant magnitude shows that in clear and moonless nights the zenithal night sky in the analysed urban settings is typically 14–23 times brighter than expected from a nominal natural dark sky. This factor lies in the range 7–8 in periurban sites, 1.6–2.5 in transition regions and 0.8–1.6 in rural and mountain dark sky places. The presence of clouds in urban areas strongly enhances the amount of scattered light, easily reaching amplification factors in excess of 25, in comparison with the light scattered in the same places under clear sky conditions. The periodic NSB modulation due to the Moon, still clearly visible in transition and rural places, is barely notable at periurban locations and is practically lost at urban sites.  
  Address (up)  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1544  
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Author Foster, J.G.; Algera, D.A.; Brownscombe, J.W.; Zolderdo, A.J.; Cooke, S.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Consequences of Different Types of Littoral Zone Light Pollution on the Parental Care Behaviour of a Freshwater Teleost Fish Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Water, Air, & Soil Pollution Abbreviated Journal Water Air Soil Pollut  
  Volume 227 Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Ecological light pollution occurs when artificial lights disrupt the natural regimes of individual organisms or their ecosystems. Increasing development of shoreline habitats leads to increased light pollution (e.g., from cottages, docks, automobile traffic), which could impact the ecology of littoral zones of lakes and rivers. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) engage in sole paternal care, guarding their nest continually, day and night, to protect their developing offspring. Any alterations to their behaviour—either directly because of the response to light or indirectly due to changes in nest predator activity and associated response of the bass—could lead to increased energetic demands for fish that have a fixed energy budget and ultimately reduce reproductive success. To examine this issue, tri-axial accelerometer biologgers were externally attached to nesting smallmouth bass during the egg stage to determine whether light pollution (i.e., dock lights with low levels of continuous light and spotlights with high intensity irregular light simulating automobile traffic) altered behaviour of nesting males relative to control fish. Our study revealed that both types of light pollution increased overall bass activity level compared with the control group. The intermittent light treatment group had the highest activity and exhibited large fluctuations between night and day activity levels. Fish in the continual light treatment group displayed statistically higher activity than the control fish but showed limited fluctuations between day and night activity levels. Our results suggest that continuous or intermittent light sources, common in shoreline habitats that have been developed, have the potential to alter the behaviour and thus energy use of nest-guarding fish. This study contributes to the growing body of literature on the ecological consequences of light pollution in aquatic ecosystems.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0049-6979 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1545  
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