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Author (up) Esaki, Y.; Kitajima, T.; Ito, Y.; Koike, S.; Nakao, Y.; Tsuchiya, A.; Hirose, M.; Iwata, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Wearing blue light-blocking glasses in the evening advances circadian rhythms in the patients with delayed sleep phase disorder: An open-label trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 33 Issue 8 Pages 1037-1044  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract It has been recently discovered that blue wavelengths form the portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum that most potently regulates circadian rhythm. We investigated the effect of blue light-blocking glasses in subjects with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). This open-label trial was conducted over 4 consecutive weeks. The DSPD patients were instructed to wear blue light-blocking amber glasses from 21:00 p.m. to bedtime, every evening for 2 weeks. To ascertain the outcome of this intervention, we measured dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) and actigraphic sleep data at baseline and after the treatment. Nine consecutive DSPD patients participated in this study. Most subjects could complete the treatment with the exception of one patient who hoped for changing to drug therapy before the treatment was completed. The patients who used amber lens showed an advance of 78 min in DLMO value, although the change was not statistically significant (p = 0.145). Nevertheless, the sleep onset time measured by actigraph was advanced by 132 min after the treatment (p = 0.034). These data suggest that wearing amber lenses may be an effective and safe intervention for the patients with DSPD. These findings also warrant replication in a larger patient cohort with controlled observations.  
  Address a Department of Psychiatry , Fujita Health University School of Medicine , Aichi , Japan  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27322730 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1488  
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Author (up) Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Duriscoe, D.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.; Portnov, B.A.; Rybnikova, N.A.; Furgoni, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Science Advances  
  Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages e1600377-e1600377  
  Keywords Skyglow; Conservation; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution—artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world’s land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1466  
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Author (up) Fallows, C.; Fallows, M.; Hammerschlag, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of lunar phase on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Environmental Biology of Fishes Abbreviated Journal Environ Biol Fish  
  Volume 99 Issue 11 Pages 805-812  
  Keywords Moonlight; Animals  
  Abstract Predator-prey relationships can be influenced by environmental conditions, including changes in moon phase and associated lunar illumination. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed underlying the effects of moonlight on predator-prey interactions: the predation risk hypothesis and visual acuity hypothesis. However, few studies have tested these hypotheses during twilight hours or involved large mobile aquatic species. In the present study, we evaluated these hypotheses using data collected over 16 years on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) at sunrise. Data from 1476 natural predation events demonstrated shark attack frequency and seal capture success was significantly higher at sunrise during periods of low (0–10 %) versus high (90–100 %) lunar illumination, which is consistent with the visual acuity hypothesis. We propose that during full moon periods, white sharks at night are at a visual and tactical advantage over seals which are silhouetted at the surface in the moonlight and thus easier to isolate in darkness, while sharks remain camouflaged hunting from below through deep water. However, at sunrise, we hypothesize this advantage shifts to seals as the added lunar illumination, combined with emerging sunlight, may decrease shark stealth and increase the ability of seals to detect and avoid sharks. These finding suggest that lunar effects on predator-prey dynamics can be context specific, likely moderated by visual acuity of predators and prey which may change according to the photoperiod.  
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  ISSN 0378-1909 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3141  
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Author (up) Farkas, A.; Szaz, D.; Egri, A.; Barta, A.; Meszaros, A.; Hegedus, R.; Horvath, G.; Kriska, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mayflies are least attracted to vertical polarization: A polarotactic reaction helping to avoid unsuitable habitats Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 163 Issue Pages 219-227  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Like other aquatic insects, mayflies are positively polarotactic and locate water surfaces by means of the horizontal polarization of water-reflected light. However, may vertically polarized light also have implications for the swarming behaviour of mayflies? To answer this question, we studied in four field experiments the behavioural responses of Ephoron virgo and Caenis robusta mayflies to lamps emitting horizontally and vertically polarized and unpolarized light. In both species, unpolarized light induces positive phototaxis, horizontally polarized light elicits positive photo- and polarotaxis, horizontally polarized light is much more attractive than unpolarized light, and vertically polarized light is the least attractive if the stimulus intensities and spectra are the same. Vertically polarized light was the most attractive for C. robusta if its intensity was about two and five times higher than that of the unpolarized and horizontally polarized stimuli, respectively. We suggest that the mayfly behaviour observed in our experiments may facilitate the stability of swarming above water surfaces. Beside the open water surface reflecting horizontally polarized light, the shadow and mirror image of riparian vegetation at the edge of the water surface reflect weakly and non-horizontally (mainly vertically) polarized light. Due to their positive polarotaxis, flying mayflies remain continuously above the water surface, because they keep away from the unpolarized or non-horizontally polarizing edge regions (water surface and coast line) of water bodies. We also discuss how our findings can explain the regulation of mayfly colonization.  
  Address Danube Research Institute, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, H-1113 Budapest, Karolina ut 29-31, Hungary; Group for Methodology in Biology Teaching, Biological Institute, Eotvos University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany setany 1, Hungary. Electronic address: kriska@ludens.elte.hu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27178399 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1501  
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Author (up) Farnworth, B.; Innes, J.; Waas, J.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Converting Predation Cues into Conservation Tools: The Effect of Light on Mouse Foraging Behaviour Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages e0145432  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Prey face a conflict between acquiring energy and avoiding predators and use both direct and indirect cues to assess predation risk. Illumination, an indirect cue, influences nocturnal rodent foraging behaviour. New Zealand holds no native rodent species but has introduced mice (Mus musculus) that severely impair native biodiversity. We used Giving-Up Densities (GUDs) and observations of foraging frequency and duration to assess if artificial light induces risk avoidance behaviour in mice and could limit their activity. We found both captive (wild strain) mice in outdoor pens and wild mice within a pest fenced sanctuary (Maungatautari, New Zealand) displayed avoidance behaviour in response to illumination. In captivity, total foraging effort was similar across lit and unlit pens but mice displayed a strong preference for removing seeds from dark control areas (mean: 15.33 SD: +/-11.64 per 3.5 hours) over illuminated areas (2.00 +/-3.44). Wild mice also removed fewer seeds from illuminated areas (0.42 +/-1.00 per 12 hours) compared to controls (6.67 +/-9.20). Captive mice spent less than 1.0% of available time at illuminated areas, versus 11.3% at controls; visited the lit areas less than control areas (12.00 +/- 9.77 versus 29.00 +/-21.58 visits respectively); and spent less time per visit at illuminated versus control areas (8.17 +/-7.83 versus 44.83 +/-87.52 seconds per visit respectively). Illumination could provide protection at ecologically sensitive sites, damaged exclusion fences awaiting repair, fence terminus zones of peninsula sanctuaries and shipping docks that service offshore islands. We promote the hypothesis that the tendency of mice to avoid illumination could be a useful conservation tool, and advance knowledge of risk assessment and foraging under perceived danger.  
  Address University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26760039 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1339  
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