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Author Yonezawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Tomioka, M.; Matsuki, N.
Title Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 8 Pages (down) e0161735
Keywords Moonlight; Animals
Abstract There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.
Address Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27580019; PMCID:PMC5006988 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2082
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Author Bará, S.
Title Anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in urban and rural areas Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.
Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages (down) 160541
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The growing emissions of artificial light to the atmosphere are producing, among other effects, a significant increase of the night sky brightness (NSB) above its expected natural values. A permanent sensor network has been deployed in Galicia (northwest of Iberian peninsula) to monitor the anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in a countrywide area. The network is composed of 14 detectors integrated in automated weather stations of MeteoGalicia, the Galician public meteorological agency. Zenithal NSB readings are taken every minute and the results are openly available in real time for researchers, interested stakeholders and the public at large through a dedicated website. The measurements allow one to assess the extent of the loss of the natural night in urban, periurban, transition and dark rural sites, as well as its daily and monthly time courses. Two metrics are introduced here to characterize the disruption of the night darkness across the year: the significant magnitude (m1/3) and the moonlight modulation factor (γ). The significant magnitude shows that in clear and moonless nights the zenithal night sky in the analysed urban settings is typically 14–23 times brighter than expected from a nominal natural dark sky. This factor lies in the range 7–8 in periurban sites, 1.6–2.5 in transition regions and 0.8–1.6 in rural and mountain dark sky places. The presence of clouds in urban areas strongly enhances the amount of scattered light, easily reaching amplification factors in excess of 25, in comparison with the light scattered in the same places under clear sky conditions. The periodic NSB modulation due to the Moon, still clearly visible in transition and rural places, is barely notable at periurban locations and is practically lost at urban sites.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1544
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Author Dorado-Correa, A.M.; Rodríguez-Rocha, M.; Brumm, H.
Title Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.
Volume 3 Issue 7 Pages (down) 160231
Keywords Animals
Abstract Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1484
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Author Thums, M.; Whiting, S.D.; Reisser, J.; Pendoley, K.L.; Pattiaratchi, C.B.; Proietti, M.; Hetzel, Y.; Fisher, R.; Meekan, M.G.
Title Artificial light on water attracts turtle hatchlings during their near shore transit Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.
Volume 3 Issue 5 Pages (down) 160142
Keywords Animals; acoustic telemetry; in-water movement; VR2W positioning system; green turtle; light pollution; coastal development; Chelonia mydas; ecology; sea turtle
Abstract We examined the effect of artificial light on the near shore trajectories of turtle hatchlings dispersing from natal beaches. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchlings were tagged with miniature acoustic transmitters and their movements tracked within an underwater array of 36 acoustic receivers placed in the near shore zone. A total of 40 hatchlings were tracked, 20 of which were subjected to artificial light during their transit of the array. At the same time, we measured current speed and direction, which were highly variable within and between experimental nights and treatments. Artificial lighting affected hatchling behaviour, with 88% of individual trajectories oriented towards the light and spending, on average, 23% more time in the 2.25 ha tracking array (19.5 ± 5 min) than under ambient light conditions (15.8 ± 5 min). Current speed had little to no effect on the bearing (angular direction) of the hatchling tracks when artificial light was present, but under ambient conditions it influenced the bearing of the tracks when current direction was offshore and above speeds of approximately 32.5 cm s−1. This is the first experimental evidence that wild turtle hatchlings are attracted to artificial light after entering the ocean, a behaviour that is likely to subject them to greater risk of predation. The experimental protocol described in this study can be used to assess the effect of anthropogenic (light pollution, noise, etc.) and natural (wave action, current, wind, moonlight) influences on the in-water movements of sea turtle hatchlings during the early phase of dispersal.
Address Australian Institute of Marine Science c/o The UWA Oceans Institute (MO96), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1454
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Author Connelly, S.J.; Stoeckel, J.A.; Gitzen, R.A.; Williamson, C.E.; Gonzalez, M.J.
Title Effect of Clonal Selection on Daphnia Tolerance to Dark Experimental Conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 7 Pages (down) e0159628
Keywords Darkness, Animals
Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated substantial effects of environmental stress that vary among clones. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) is an important abiotic stressor that is highly variable in aquatic ecosystems due to diel and seasonal variations in incident sunlight as well as to differences in the UV transparency of water among water bodies, the depth distribution of organisms, and the ability of organisms to detect and respond to UV. In contrast to the convention that all UV is damaging, evidence is accumulating for the beneficial effects of exposure to low levels of UV radiation. Whereas UV has been frequently observed as the primary light-related stressor, herein we present evidence that dark conditions may be similarly “stressful” (reduction of overall fitness), and stress responses vary among clones of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia parvula. We have identified a significant relationship between survivorship and reduced fecundity of clones maintained in dark conditions, but no correlation between tolerance of the clones to dark and UV radiation. Low tolerance to dark conditions can have negative effects not only on accumulated stresses in organisms (e.g. the repair of UV-induced damage in organisms with photolyase), but potentially on the overall physiology and fitness of organisms. Our results support recent evidence of the beneficial effects of low-level UV exposure for some organisms.
Address Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27434210 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1491
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