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Author Stockl, A.L.; O'Carroll, D.C.; Warrant, E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neural Summation in the Hawkmoth Visual System Extends the Limits of Vision in Dim Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages (down) 821-826  
  Keywords Vision; Animals  
  Abstract Most of the world's animals are active in dim light and depend on good vision for the tasks of daily life. Many have evolved visual adaptations that permit a performance superior to that of manmade imaging devices [1]. In insects, a major model visual system, nocturnal species show impressive visual abilities ranging from flight control [2, 3], to color discrimination [4, 5], to navigation using visual landmarks [6-8] or dim celestial compass cues [9, 10]. In addition to optical adaptations that improve their sensitivity in dim light [11], neural summation of light in space and time-which enhances the coarser and slower features of the scene at the expense of noisier finer and faster features-has been suggested to improve sensitivity in theoretical [12-14], anatomical [15-17], and behavioral [18-20] studies. How these summation strategies function neurally is, however, presently unknown. Here, we quantified spatial and temporal summation in the motion vision pathway of a nocturnal hawkmoth. We show that spatial and temporal summation combine supralinearly to substantially increase contrast sensitivity and visual information rate over four decades of light intensity, enabling hawkmoths to see at light levels 100 times dimmer than without summation. Our results reveal how visual motion is calculated neurally in dim light and how spatial and temporal summation improve sensitivity while simultaneously maximizing spatial and temporal resolution, thus extending models of insect motion vision derived predominantly from diurnal flies. Moreover, the summation strategies we have revealed may benefit manmade vision systems optimized for variable light levels [21].  
  Address Department of Biology, University of Lund, Solvegatan 35, 22362 Lund, Sweden  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26948877 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1374  
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Author Rybnikova, N.A.; Haim, A.; Portnov, B.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does artificial light-at-night exposure contribute to the worldwide obesity pandemic? Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication International Journal of Obesity (2005) Abbreviated Journal Int J Obes (Lond)  
  Volume 40 Issue 5 Pages (down) 815-824  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Worldwide overweight and obesity rates are on the rise, with about 1 900 billion adults being defined as overweight and about 600 million adults being defined as obese by the World Health Organization (WHO). Increasing exposure to artificial light-at-night (ALAN) may influence body mass, by suppression of melatonin production and disruption of daily rhythms, resulting in physiological or behavioral changes in the human body, and may thus become a driving force behind worldwide overweight and obesity pandemic. METHODS: We analyzed most recent satellite images of night time illumination, available from the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), combining them with country-level data on female and male overweight and obesity prevalence rates, reported by the WHO. The study aims to identify and measure the strength of association between ALAN and country-wide overweight and obesity rates, controlling for per capita GDP, level of urbanization, birth rate, food consumption and regional differences. RESULTS: ALAN emerged as a statistically significant and positive predictor of overweight and obesity (t>1.97; P<0.05), helping to explain, together with other factors, about 70% of the observed variation of overweight and obesity prevalence rates among females and males in more than 80 countries worldwide. Regional differences in the strength of association between ALAN and excessive body mass are also noted. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first population-level study that confirms the results of laboratory research and cohort studies in which ALAN was found to be a contributing factor to excessive body mass in humans.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 23 February 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.255.  
  Address Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Faculty of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0307-0565 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26795746 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1381  
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Author Lagiou, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shedding light on the role of circadian disruption in breast cancer etiology Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication European Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Epidemiol  
  Volume 31 Issue 9 Pages (down) 807-810  
  Keywords Commentary; Human Health  
  Abstract  
  Address Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. pdlagiou@med.uoa.gr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0393-2990 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27550370 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1508  
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Author Fallows, C.; Fallows, M.; Hammerschlag, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of lunar phase on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Environmental Biology of Fishes Abbreviated Journal Environ Biol Fish  
  Volume 99 Issue 11 Pages (down) 805-812  
  Keywords Moonlight; Animals  
  Abstract Predator-prey relationships can be influenced by environmental conditions, including changes in moon phase and associated lunar illumination. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed underlying the effects of moonlight on predator-prey interactions: the predation risk hypothesis and visual acuity hypothesis. However, few studies have tested these hypotheses during twilight hours or involved large mobile aquatic species. In the present study, we evaluated these hypotheses using data collected over 16 years on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) at sunrise. Data from 1476 natural predation events demonstrated shark attack frequency and seal capture success was significantly higher at sunrise during periods of low (0–10 %) versus high (90–100 %) lunar illumination, which is consistent with the visual acuity hypothesis. We propose that during full moon periods, white sharks at night are at a visual and tactical advantage over seals which are silhouetted at the surface in the moonlight and thus easier to isolate in darkness, while sharks remain camouflaged hunting from below through deep water. However, at sunrise, we hypothesize this advantage shifts to seals as the added lunar illumination, combined with emerging sunlight, may decrease shark stealth and increase the ability of seals to detect and avoid sharks. These finding suggest that lunar effects on predator-prey dynamics can be context specific, likely moderated by visual acuity of predators and prey which may change according to the photoperiod.  
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  ISSN 0378-1909 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3141  
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Author Jean, N.; Burke, M.; Xie, M.; Davis, W.M.; Lobell, D.B.; Ermon, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Combining satellite imagery and machine learning to predict poverty Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 353 Issue 6301 Pages (down) 790-794  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Nighttime lighting is a rough proxy for economic wealth, and nighttime maps of the world show that many developing countries are sparsely illuminated. Jean et al. combined nighttime maps with high-resolution daytime satellite images (see the Perspective by Blumenstock). With a bit of machine-learning wizardry, the combined images can be converted into accurate estimates of household consumption and assets, both of which are hard to measure in poorer countries. Furthermore, the night- and day-time data are publicly available and nonproprietary.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1507  
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