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Author Yuan, D.; Collage, R.D.; Huang, H.; Zhang, X.; Kautza, B.C.; Lewis, A.J.; Zuckerbraun, B.S.; Tsung, A.; Angus, D.C.; Rosengart, M.R.
Title Blue light reduces organ injury from ischemia and reperfusion Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 113 Issue 19 Pages (down) 5239-5244
Keywords Biology
Abstract Evidence suggests that light and circadian rhythms profoundly influence the physiologic capacity with which an organism responds to stress. However, the ramifications of light spectrum on the course of critical illness remain to be determined. Here, we show that acute exposure to bright blue spectrum light reduces organ injury by comparison with bright red spectrum or ambient white fluorescent light in two murine models of sterile insult: warm liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and unilateral renal I/R. Exposure to bright blue light before I/R reduced hepatocellular injury and necrosis and reduced acute kidney injury and necrosis. In both models, blue light reduced neutrophil influx, as evidenced by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) within each organ, and reduced the release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a neutrophil chemotactant and key mediator in the pathogenesis of I/R injury. The protective mechanism appeared to involve an optic pathway and was mediated, in part, by a sympathetic (beta3 adrenergic) pathway that functioned independent of significant alterations in melatonin or corticosterone concentrations to regulate neutrophil recruitment. These data suggest that modifying the spectrum of light may offer therapeutic utility in sterile forms of cellular injury.
Address Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213; Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 rosengartmr@upmc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27114521 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1443
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Author Stone, R.A.; Cohen, Y.; McGlinn, A.M.; Davison, S.; Casavant, S.; Shaffer, J.; Khurana, T.S.; Pardue, M.T.; Iuvone, P.M.
Title Development of Experimental Myopia in Chicks in a Natural Environment Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Abbreviated Journal Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
Volume 57 Issue 11 Pages (down) 4779-4789
Keywords Animals; Vision
Abstract PURPOSE: The hypothesis that outdoor exposure might protect against myopia has generated much interest, although available data find only modest clinical efficacy. We tested the effect of outdoor rearing on form-deprivation myopia in chicks, a myopia model markedly inhibited by high-intensity indoor laboratory lighting. METHODS: Unilaterally goggled cohorts of White Leghorn chicks were maintained in a species-appropriate, outdoor rural setting during daylight hours to the extent permitted by weather. Control chicks were reared indoors with incandescent lighting. Besides ocular refraction and ultrasound, we determined dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content in retina and vitreous and measured mRNA expression levels of selected clock and circadian rhythm-related genes in the retina/RPE. RESULTS: Myopia developed in the goggled eyes of all cohorts. Whereas outdoor rearing lessened myopia by 44% at 4 days, a protective effect was no longer evident at 11 days. Outdoor rearing had no consistent effect on retinal or vitreous content of dopamine or DOPAC. Conforming to prior data on form-deprivation myopia, retina and vitreous levels of DOPAC were reduced in goggled eyes. Compared with contralateral eyes, the retinal expression of clock and circadian rhythm-related genes was modestly altered in myopic eyes of chicks reared indoors or outdoors. CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor rearing of chicks induces only a partial decrease of goggle-induced myopia that is not maintained, without evidence that retinal dopamine metabolism accounts for the partial myopia inhibition under these outdoor conditions. Although modest, alterations in retinal gene expression suggest that studying circadian signals might be informative for understanding refractive mechanisms.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States 7Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0146-0404 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27618415; PMCID:PMC5024671 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1538
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Author Straka, T.M.; Lentini, P.E.; Lumsden, L.F.; Wintle, B.A.; van der Ree, R.
Title Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 6 Issue 14 Pages (down) 4761-4774
Keywords Ecology, Animals
Abstract Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands that maximize conservation outcomes for urban bats and possibly other wetland-dependent and nocturnal fauna.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1499
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Author Mendez, N.; Halabi, D.; Spichiger, C.; Salazar, E.R.; Vergara, K.; Alonso-Vasquez, P.; Carmona, P.; Sarmiento, J.M.; Richter, H.G.; Seron-Ferre, M.; Torres-Farfan, C.
Title Gestational Chronodisruption Impairs Circadian Physiology in Rat Male Offspring, Increasing the Risk of Chronic Disease Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Endocrinology
Volume 157 Issue 12 Pages (down) 4654-4668
Keywords Animals
Abstract Chronic exposure to light at night, as in shift work, alters biological clocks (chronodisruption), impacting negatively pregnancy outcome in human. Actually, the interaction of maternal and fetal circadian systems could be a key factor determining a fitting health in adult. We propose that chronic photoperiod shifts (CPS) during pregnancy, alter maternal circadian rhythms, and impair circadian physiology in the adult offspring, increasing health risks. Pregnant rats were exposed to normal photoperiod (12h-light/12h-dark) or to CSP until 85 gestation. The effects of gestational CPS were evaluated on the mother and adult offspring. In the mother we measured rhythms of heart-rate, body temperature and activity through gestation, and daily rhythms of plasma variables: melatonin, corticosterone, aldosterone and markers of renal function; at 18 days of gestation. In adult offspring, we measured rhythms of clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), locomotor activity, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma variables, glucose tolerance and corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). CPS altered all maternal circadian rhythms; lengthened gestation and increased newborn weight. The adult CPS offspring presented normal rhythms of clock gene expression in the SCN, locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the daily rhythm of plasma melatonin was absent, and corticosterone, aldosterone, renal markers, blood pressure and heart-rate rhythms were altered. Moreover, CPS offspring presented decreased glucose tolerance and abnormal corticosterone response to ACTH. Altogether, these data shows that gestational CPS induced long-term effects on the offspring circadian system, wherein a normal SCN coexists with altered endocrine, cardiovascular and metabolic function.
Address Laboratory of Developmental Chronobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology and
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-7227 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27802074 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1550
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Author Gao, X.; Li, X.; Zhang, M.; Chi, L.; Song, C.; Liu, Y.
Title Effects of LED light quality on the growth, survival and metamorphosis ofHaliotis discus hannaiIno larvae Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Aquaculture Research Abbreviated Journal Aquac Res
Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages (down) 3705–3717
Keywords Animals; Haliotis discus hannai Ino; larva; LED light quality; initial stage of lighting; embryonic development; abalone; photobiology
Abstract Light is a key environmental factor influencing the growth, development and survival of aquatic organisms. We examined the effects of different light qualities (red, orange, white, blue, green or no light) and developmental stage at initial lighting [fertilized egg (FE), trochophore larva (TL), or eye-spot larva (EL)] on the growth, development, and survival of larvae of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Larva-hatching success was significantly higher under blue, green, or no light compared with red, orange or white light (P < 0.05). Larval abnormalities were significantly increased under red, orange or white light compared with all other light qualities (P < 0.05). The incidence of metamorphosis in larvae illuminated from the TL stage was significantly higher under blue compared with other light qualities. Irrespective of the stage at initial illumination, the incidence of metamorphosis was lower in larvae cultured under red, orange or no light compared with other light qualities, but the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Juvenile survival was significantly higher under blue or green compared with other light qualities (P < 0.05), with no significant effect of stage at initial illumination (P > 0.05). Larval size at completion of the shell was unaffected by stage at initial illumination, but was greater under blue or green light, while size at metamorphosis was greatest following illumination with blue or green light since the TL or EL stage (P < 0.05). Metamorphosis time was shortest with blue or green light and in cultures illuminated from the FE or TL stage (P < 0.05). Larval development from the FE to formation of the fourth tubule on the cephalic tentacles was fastest in larvae exposed since the FE or TL stage to blue or green light, compared with other light qualities (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in terms of the rate of development from the FE to the TL stage between cultures lit or unlit since the FE egg stage (P > 0.05). These results suggest that a blue or green light source applied from the TL stage can increase the hatching and yield of H. discus hannai Ino, with important implications for the development of the aquaculture industry.
Address Research and Development Center of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, Shandong Province, China; 18354292961(at)163.com.
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1355557X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1340
Permanent link to this record