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Author Plummer, K.E.; Hale, J.D.; O'Callaghan, M.J.; Sadler, J.P.; Siriwardena, G.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating the impact of street lighting changes on garden moth communities Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Urban Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Urban Ecol  
  Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages juw004  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Night time illumination of cities is undergoing radical change through the adoption of new street lighting technologies, but the impacts of these large-scale changes on biodiversity have not been explored. Moths are of particular concern because of their nocturnal ‘flight-to-light’ responses. Here we examine in situ effects of (1) street lamp replacement and (2) the spatial distribution of local street lighting on garden moth communities in Birmingham, UK, to determine whether current shifts in street lighting infrastructure are leading to an increased attraction of moths into suburban areas. Using a unique before-after-control-impact survey, we show that switching from narrow (low-pressure sodium) to broad spectrum (high-pressure sodium) lamps significantly increases the diversity of macro-moths in suburban gardens. Furthermore, we demonstrate the complex ways in which the moth community differentially responds to variation in street lighting characteristics. In particular we found that macro-moth attraction was greatest at high lamp densities, whilst micro-moth families responded more strongly to street lamp proximity and the density of UV-emitting lamps specifically. Our findings indicate that moths are attracted to suburban gardens with closer, more dense and more spectrally diverse local street lighting, and suggest that suburban areas could represent ecological traps for moth communities if they have insufficient resources to support moth survival and reproduction. Further research is now needed to determine whether street lighting is progressively damaging moth communities, and to understand whether these impacts could be mitigated through changes to street lighting regimes or through the provision of ecologically important habitats in urban landscapes.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 2058-5543 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1500  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Weishampel, Z.A.; Cheng, W.-H.; Weishampel, J.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sea turtle nesting patterns in Florida vis-à-vis satellite-derived measures of artificial lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Remote Sens Ecol Conserv  
  Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 59-72  
  Keywords Animals; sea turtles; Artificial light; DMSP; light pollution; marine turtles; nest surveys; simultaneous autoregressive modeling; Florida; United States; Loggerhead turtle; Caretta caretta; Leatherback turtle; Dermochelys coriacea; Green turtle; Chelonia mydas  
  Abstract Light pollution contributes to the degradation and reduction of habitat for wildlife. Nocturnally nesting and hatching sea turtle species are particularly sensitive to artificial light near nesting beaches. At local scales (0.01–0.1 km), artificial light has been experimentally shown to deter nesting females and disorient hatchlings. This study used satellite-based remote sensing to assess broad scale (~1–100s km) effects of artificial light on nesting patterns of loggerhead (Caretta caretta), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) along the Florida coastline. Annual artificial nightlight data from 1992 to 2012 acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) were compared to an extensive nesting dataset for 368, ~1 km beach segments from this same 21-year period. Relationships between nest densities and artificial lighting were derived using simultaneous autoregressive models to adjust for the presence of spatial autocorrelation. Though coastal urbanization increased in Florida during this period, nearly two-thirds of the surveyed beaches exhibited decreasing light levels (N = 249); only a small fraction of the beaches showed significant increases (N = 52). Nest densities for all three sea turtle species were negatively influenced by artificial light at neighborhood scales (<100 km); however, only loggerhead and green turtle nest densities were influenced by artificial light levels at the individual beach scale (~1 km). Satellite monitoring shows promise for light management of extensive or remote areas. As the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions of the satellite data are coarse, ground measurements are suggested to confirm that artificial light levels on beaches during the nesting season correspond to the annual nightlight measures.  
  Address Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 USA; John.Weishampel(at)ucf.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 2056-3485 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1346  
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Author Thums, M.; Whiting, S.D.; Reisser, J.; Pendoley, K.L.; Pattiaratchi, C.B.; Proietti, M.; Hetzel, Y.; Fisher, R.; Meekan, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light on water attracts turtle hatchlings during their near shore transit Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 5 Pages 160142  
  Keywords Animals; acoustic telemetry; in-water movement; VR2W positioning system; green turtle; light pollution; coastal development; Chelonia mydas; ecology; sea turtle  
  Abstract We examined the effect of artificial light on the near shore trajectories of turtle hatchlings dispersing from natal beaches. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchlings were tagged with miniature acoustic transmitters and their movements tracked within an underwater array of 36 acoustic receivers placed in the near shore zone. A total of 40 hatchlings were tracked, 20 of which were subjected to artificial light during their transit of the array. At the same time, we measured current speed and direction, which were highly variable within and between experimental nights and treatments. Artificial lighting affected hatchling behaviour, with 88% of individual trajectories oriented towards the light and spending, on average, 23% more time in the 2.25&#8197;ha tracking array (19.5&#8201;±&#8201;5&#8197;min) than under ambient light conditions (15.8&#8201;±&#8201;5&#8197;min). Current speed had little to no effect on the bearing (angular direction) of the hatchling tracks when artificial light was present, but under ambient conditions it influenced the bearing of the tracks when current direction was offshore and above speeds of approximately 32.5&#8197;cm&#8197;s&#8722;1. This is the first experimental evidence that wild turtle hatchlings are attracted to artificial light after entering the ocean, a behaviour that is likely to subject them to greater risk of predation. The experimental protocol described in this study can be used to assess the effect of anthropogenic (light pollution, noise, etc.) and natural (wave action, current, wind, moonlight) influences on the in-water movements of sea turtle hatchlings during the early phase of dispersal.  
  Address Australian Institute of Marine Science c/o The UWA Oceans Institute (MO96), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1454  
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Author Dorado-Correa, A.M.; Rodríguez-Rocha, M.; Brumm, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 7 Pages 160231  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1484  
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Author Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in urban and rural areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages 160541  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The growing emissions of artificial light to the atmosphere are producing, among other effects, a significant increase of the night sky brightness (NSB) above its expected natural values. A permanent sensor network has been deployed in Galicia (northwest of Iberian peninsula) to monitor the anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in a countrywide area. The network is composed of 14 detectors integrated in automated weather stations of MeteoGalicia, the Galician public meteorological agency. Zenithal NSB readings are taken every minute and the results are openly available in real time for researchers, interested stakeholders and the public at large through a dedicated website. The measurements allow one to assess the extent of the loss of the natural night in urban, periurban, transition and dark rural sites, as well as its daily and monthly time courses. Two metrics are introduced here to characterize the disruption of the night darkness across the year: the significant magnitude (m1/3) and the moonlight modulation factor (&#947;). The significant magnitude shows that in clear and moonless nights the zenithal night sky in the analysed urban settings is typically 14–23 times brighter than expected from a nominal natural dark sky. This factor lies in the range 7–8 in periurban sites, 1.6–2.5 in transition regions and 0.8–1.6 in rural and mountain dark sky places. The presence of clouds in urban areas strongly enhances the amount of scattered light, easily reaching amplification factors in excess of 25, in comparison with the light scattered in the same places under clear sky conditions. The periodic NSB modulation due to the Moon, still clearly visible in transition and rural places, is barely notable at periurban locations and is practically lost at urban sites.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1544  
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