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Author Pacheco, Y.M.; Martin, G.J.; Bybee, S.M.
Title On the Phototactic Response of RwandanDiaphanesMotschulsky (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) to a Trap with a 630Nm Red Light Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Coleopterists Bulletin Abbreviated Journal The Coleopterists Bulletin
Volume 70 Issue 3 Pages 559-561
Keywords Animals
Abstract
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0010-065X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1531
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Author Watson, M.J.; Wilson, D.R.; Mennill, D.J.
Title Anthropogenic light is associated with increased vocal activity by nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal The Condor
Volume 118 Issue 2 Pages 338-344
Keywords Animals
Abstract Anthropogenic modifications to the natural environment have profound effects on wild animals, through structural changes to natural ecosystems as well as anthropogenic disturbances such as light and noise. For animals that migrate nocturnally, anthropogenic light can interfere with migration routes, flight altitudes, and social activities that accompany migration, such as acoustic communication. We investigated the effect of anthropogenic light on nocturnal migration of birds through the Great Lakes ecosystem. Specifically, we recorded the vocal activity of migrating birds and compared the number of nocturnal flight calls produced above rural areas with ground-level artificial lights compared to nearby areas without lights. We show that more nocturnal flight calls are detected over artificially lit areas. The median number of nocturnal flight calls recorded at sites with artificial lights (31 per night, interquartile range: 15–135) was 3 times higher than at nearby sites without artificial lights (11 per night, interquartile range: 4–39). By contrast, the number of species detected at lit and unlit sites did not differ significantly (artificially lit sites: 6.5 per night, interquartile range: 5.0–8.8; unlit sites: 4.5 per night, interquartile range: 2.0–7.0). We conclude that artificial lighting changes the behavior of nocturnally migrating birds. The increased detections could be a result of ground-level light sources altering bird behavior during migration. For example, birds might have changed their migratory route to pass over lit areas, flown at lower altitudes over lit areas, increased their calling rate over lit areas, or remained longer over lit areas. Our results for ground-level lights correspond to previous findings demonstrating that migratory birds are influenced by lights on tall structures.
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ISSN (up) 0010-5422 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1422
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Author Mendez, N.; Halabi, D.; Spichiger, C.; Salazar, E.R.; Vergara, K.; Alonso-Vasquez, P.; Carmona, P.; Sarmiento, J.M.; Richter, H.G.; Seron-Ferre, M.; Torres-Farfan, C.
Title Gestational Chronodisruption Impairs Circadian Physiology in Rat Male Offspring, Increasing the Risk of Chronic Disease Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Endocrinology
Volume 157 Issue 12 Pages 4654-4668
Keywords Animals
Abstract Chronic exposure to light at night, as in shift work, alters biological clocks (chronodisruption), impacting negatively pregnancy outcome in human. Actually, the interaction of maternal and fetal circadian systems could be a key factor determining a fitting health in adult. We propose that chronic photoperiod shifts (CPS) during pregnancy, alter maternal circadian rhythms, and impair circadian physiology in the adult offspring, increasing health risks. Pregnant rats were exposed to normal photoperiod (12h-light/12h-dark) or to CSP until 85 gestation. The effects of gestational CPS were evaluated on the mother and adult offspring. In the mother we measured rhythms of heart-rate, body temperature and activity through gestation, and daily rhythms of plasma variables: melatonin, corticosterone, aldosterone and markers of renal function; at 18 days of gestation. In adult offspring, we measured rhythms of clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), locomotor activity, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma variables, glucose tolerance and corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). CPS altered all maternal circadian rhythms; lengthened gestation and increased newborn weight. The adult CPS offspring presented normal rhythms of clock gene expression in the SCN, locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the daily rhythm of plasma melatonin was absent, and corticosterone, aldosterone, renal markers, blood pressure and heart-rate rhythms were altered. Moreover, CPS offspring presented decreased glucose tolerance and abnormal corticosterone response to ACTH. Altogether, these data shows that gestational CPS induced long-term effects on the offspring circadian system, wherein a normal SCN coexists with altered endocrine, cardiovascular and metabolic function.
Address Laboratory of Developmental Chronobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology and
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0013-7227 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27802074 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1550
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Author Justice, M.J.; Justice, T.C.
Title Attraction of Insects to Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, Halogen, and Led Lamps in a Light Trap: Implications for Light Pollution and Urban Ecologies Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Entomological News Abbreviated Journal Entomological News
Volume 125 Issue 5 Pages 315-326
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract The widespread use of electric lamps has created “ecological light pollution” and “artificial light ecology.” Given the important role of insects in ecosystems, how they are affected by light pollution deserves attention. Lamps designed for lighting small areas around residences are used in abundance, but studies specifically examining them are scarce. This study used a light trap to capture insects for 60 summer nights in a suburban town in Virginia, USA. During each night of trapping, one of five different light bulbs was used in the trap (incandescent, compact fluorescent, halogen, warm color temperature LED, or cool color temperature LED). The data suggest that fewer insects overall are attracted to bulbs using LED technology than bulbs using incandescent technology. This difference was also observed in the orders Lepidoptera and Diptera. These results support the use of LED bulbs to reduce the insect attraction and mortality caused by the use of artificial lights at night.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0013-872X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1419
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Author Nickla, D.L.; Totonelly, K.
Title Brief light exposure at night disrupts the circadian rhythms in eye growth and choroidal thickness in chicks Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Experimental eye Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Eye Res
Volume 146 Issue Pages 189-195
Keywords Animals
Abstract Changes in ocular growth that lead to myopia or hyperopia are associated with alterations in the circadian rhythms in eye growth, choroidal thickness and intraocular pressure in animal models of emmetropization. Recent studies have shown that light at night has deleterious effects on human health, acting via “circadian disruptions” of various diurnal rhythms, including changes in phase or amplitude. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of brief, 2-hour episodes of light in the middle of the night on the rhythms in axial length and choroidal thickness, and whether these alter eye growth and refractive error in the chick model of myopia. Starting at 2 weeks of age, birds received 2 hours of light between 12:00 am and 2:00 am for 7 days (n=12; total hours of light: 14 hrs). Age-matched controls had a continuous dark night (n=14; 14L/10D). Ocular dimensions were measured using high-frequency A-scan ultrasonography on the first day of the experiment, and again on day 7, at 6-hour intervals, starting at noon (12pm, 6pm, 12am, 6am, 12pm). Measurements during the night were done under a photographic safe-light. These data were used to determine rhythm parameters of phase and amplitude. 2 groups of birds, both experimental (light at night) and control, were measured with ultrasound at various intervals over the course of 4 weeks to determine growth rates. Refractive errors were measured in 6 experimental and 6 control birds at the end of 2 weeks. Eyes of birds in a normal L/D cycle showed sinusoidal 24-hour period diurnal rhythms in axial length and choroid thickness. Light in the middle of the night caused changes in both the rhythms in axial length and choroidal thickness, such that neither could be fit to a sine function having a period of 24 hours. Light caused an acute, transient stimulation in ocular growth rate in the subsequent 6-hour period (12 am to 6 am), that may be responsible for the increased growth rate seen 4 weeks later, and the more myopic refractive error. It also abolished the increase in choroidal thickness that normally occurs between 6 pm and 12 am. We conclude that light at night alters the rhythms in axial length and choroidal thickness in an animal model of eye growth, and that these circadian disruptions might lead to the development of ametropias. These results have implications for the use of light during the night in children.
Address The New England College of Optometry, Boston, MA, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0014-4835 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26970497 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1371
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