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Author Jiang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Tian, G.
Title Estimating nitrogen oxides emissions at city scale in China with a nightlight remote sensing model Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 544 Issue Pages 1119-1127
Keywords Remote sensing
Abstract Increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over the fast developing regions have been of great concern due to their critical associations with the aggravated haze and climate change. However, little geographically specific data exists for estimating spatio-temporal trends of NOx emissions. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal variations of NOx emissions, a spatially explicit approach based on the continuous satellite observations of artificial nighttime stable lights (NSLs) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) was developed to estimate NOx emissions from the largest emission source of fossil fuel combustion. The NSL based model was established with three types of data including satellite data of nighttime stable lights, geographical data of administrative boundaries, and provincial energy consumptions in China, where a significant growth of NOx emission has experienced during three policy stages corresponding to the 9th-11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 1995-2010). The estimated national NOx emissions increased by 8.2% per year during the study period, and the total annual NOx emissions in China estimated by the NSL-based model were approximately 4.1%-13.8% higher than the previous estimates. The spatio-temporal variations of NOx emissions at city scale were then evaluated by the Moran's I indices. The global Moran's I indices for measuring spatial agglomerations of China's NOx emission increased by 50.7% during 1995-2010. Although the inland cities have shown larger contribution to the emission growth than the more developed coastal cities since 2005, the High-High clusters of NOx emission located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta should still be the major focus of NOx mitigation. Our results indicate that the readily available DMSP/OLS nighttime stable lights based model could be an easily accessible and effective tool for achieving strategic decision making toward NOx reduction.
Address College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
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ISSN (up) 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26779958 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1335
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Author Portnov, B.A.; Stevens, R.G.; Samociuk, H.; Wakefield, D.; Gregorio, D.I.
Title Light at night and breast cancer incidence in Connecticut: An ecological study of age group effects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 572 Issue Pages 1020-1024
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The aim of this study was to test the prediction that within the state of Connecticut, USA, communities with high nighttime outdoor light level would have higher breast cancer incidence rates. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, the oldest within the United States, for years 2005 and 2009 and geocoded to the 829 census tracts in the state. Nighttime light level (LAN) was obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), 1996/97 satellite image, providing a 10-year lag. Regression models were used incorporating the LAN levels and census level data on potential confounders for the whole female population of the state, and for separate age groups. Light level emerged as a significant predictor of breast cancer incidence. After taking account of several potential confounders, the excess risk in the highest LAN level census tracts compared to the lowest was about 63% (RR=1.63; 95% CI=1.41, 1.89). The association of LAN with breast cancer incidence weakened with age; the association was strongest among premenopausal women.
Address Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT 06030, United States. Electronic address: gregorio@uchc.edu
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ISSN (up) 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27531467 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1529
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Author Bolton, D.; Mayer-Pinto, M.; Clark, G.F.; Dafforn, K.A.; Brassil, W.A.; Becker, A.; Johnston, E.L.
Title Coastal urban lighting has ecological consequences for multiple trophic levels under the sea Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 576 Issue Pages 1-9
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Urban land and seascapes are increasingly exposed to artificial lighting at night (ALAN), which is a significant source of light pollution. A broad range of ecological effects are associated with ALAN, but the changes to ecological processes remain largely unstudied. Predation is a key ecological process that structures assemblages and responds to natural cycles of light and dark. We investigated the effect of ALAN on fish predatory behaviour, and sessile invertebrate prey assemblages. Over 21days fish and sessile assemblages were exposed to 3 light treatments (Day, Night and ALAN). An array of LED spotlights was installed under a wharf to create the ALAN treatments. We used GoPro cameras to film during the day and ALAN treatments, and a Dual frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON) to film during the night treatments. Fish were most abundant during unlit nights, but were also relatively sedentary. Predatory behaviour was greatest during the day and under ALAN than at night, suggesting that fish are using structures for non-feeding purposes (e.g. shelter) at night, but artificial light dramatically increases their predatory behaviour. Altered predator behaviour corresponded with structural changes to sessile prey assemblages among the experimental lighting treatments. We demonstrate the direct effects of artificial lighting on fish behaviour and the concomitant indirect effects on sessile assemblage structure. Current and future projected use of artificial lights has the potential to significantly affect predator-prey interactions in marine systems by altering habitat use for both predators and prey. However, developments in lighting technology are a promising avenue for mitigation. This is among the first empirical evidence from the marine system on how ALAN can directly alter predation, a fundamental ecosystem process, and have indirect trophic consequences.
Address Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Sydney Institute of Marine Sciences, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN (up) 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27780095 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1548
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Author Foster, J.G.; Algera, D.A.; Brownscombe, J.W.; Zolderdo, A.J.; Cooke, S.J.
Title Consequences of Different Types of Littoral Zone Light Pollution on the Parental Care Behaviour of a Freshwater Teleost Fish Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Water, Air, & Soil Pollution Abbreviated Journal Water Air Soil Pollut
Volume 227 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Ecological light pollution occurs when artificial lights disrupt the natural regimes of individual organisms or their ecosystems. Increasing development of shoreline habitats leads to increased light pollution (e.g., from cottages, docks, automobile traffic), which could impact the ecology of littoral zones of lakes and rivers. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) engage in sole paternal care, guarding their nest continually, day and night, to protect their developing offspring. Any alterations to their behaviour—either directly because of the response to light or indirectly due to changes in nest predator activity and associated response of the bass—could lead to increased energetic demands for fish that have a fixed energy budget and ultimately reduce reproductive success. To examine this issue, tri-axial accelerometer biologgers were externally attached to nesting smallmouth bass during the egg stage to determine whether light pollution (i.e., dock lights with low levels of continuous light and spotlights with high intensity irregular light simulating automobile traffic) altered behaviour of nesting males relative to control fish. Our study revealed that both types of light pollution increased overall bass activity level compared with the control group. The intermittent light treatment group had the highest activity and exhibited large fluctuations between night and day activity levels. Fish in the continual light treatment group displayed statistically higher activity than the control fish but showed limited fluctuations between day and night activity levels. Our results suggest that continuous or intermittent light sources, common in shoreline habitats that have been developed, have the potential to alter the behaviour and thus energy use of nest-guarding fish. This study contributes to the growing body of literature on the ecological consequences of light pollution in aquatic ecosystems.
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ISSN (up) 0049-6979 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1545
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Author Rybnikova, N.A.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Outdoor light and breast cancer incidence: a comparative analysis of DMSP and VIIRS-DNB satellite data Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 38 Issue 21 Pages 5952-5961
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Several population-level studies explored the association between breast cancer (BC) incidence and artificial light-at-night (ALAN), and found higher BC rates in more lit areas. Most of these studies used ALAN satellite data, available from the United States Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (US-DMSP), while, in recent years, higher-resolution ALAN data sources, such as Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day-Night Band (VIIRS-DNB), have become available. The present study aims to determine whether the use of different ALAN data sources may affect the BC–ALAN association. As the test case, we use data on BC incidence rates in women residing in the Greater Haifa Metropolitan Area (GHMA; Israel), matching them with US-DMSP and VIIRS-DNB data on ALAN intensities, and controlling for several potential confounders, including age, fertility, and socio-economic status (SES). Both ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial dependency models were used in the analysis. ALAN emerged as a stronger predictor of BC rates in models based on better-resolution VIIRS-DNB estimates (t > 6.035; p < 0.01) than in models based on coarser US-DMSP data (t < 4.196; p < 0.01).
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1552
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