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Author van Schalkwyk, I.; Venkataraman, N.; Shankar, V.; Milton, J.; Bailey, T.; Calais, K. url  openurl
  Title Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Continuous Mainline Roadway Lighting on Freeway Segments in Washington State Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; traffic; traffic safety; road safety; continuous roadway lighting; Washington; United States  
  Abstract Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) evaluated continuous roadway lighting on mainline freeway segments in Washington State. An extensive literature review on the safety performance of roadway lighting was completed. As part of this research effort WSDOT developed multivariate random parameter (RP) models with specific lighting variables for continuous lighting on mainline freeway segments. Roadway lighting is often used as a countermeasure to address nighttime crashes and this research evaluates common assumption related to roadway lighting. The models developed for this research use crashes from the end of civil dusk twilight to the start of civil dawn twilight since lighting systems are of limited value outside these timeframes. Natural light conditions were estimated for crashes based on location and time of the crash event. Based on the RP results, the research team concludes that the contribution of continuous illumination to nighttime crash reduction is negligible. In addition to the findings on safety performance, a pilot LED project on US101 demonstrated that LED roadway lighting can significantly increase energy efficiency and environmental stewardship (e.g., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) while maintaining safety performance outcomes. The research team recommended modification to WSDOT design policy, including removal of the requirement of continuous mainline lighting and reduction of lighting where segment specific analysis indicates appropriate.  
  Address Washington State Department of Transportation 310 Maple Park Ave SE, Olympia, WA, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Washington State Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title WSDOT Research Report Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1427  
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Author Lucas, M.A.; Chahl, J.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Challenges for biomimetic night time sky polarization navigation Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proceedings of the SPIE Abbreviated Journal Proc SPIE  
  Volume 9797 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; detection of light; biology; polarization; navigation  
  Abstract Studies on some species of insects have shown them to use the polarization pattern cast by the moon in the night sky to control heading. Additional heading cues are of value to autonomous systems, since the earth’s magnetic field is not uniform, often not available and is substantially modified by local phenomena. In addition to the required low-light sensitivity of a night time polarization compass, additional complexities caused by the relative intensity of terrestrial sources must be overcome. We will show that the end result will tend to be a less reliable compass than the equivalent day time polarization device.  
  Address Univ. of South Australia, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SPIE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1430  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ceola, S.; Montanari, A.; Parajka, J.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.; Laio, F. url  openurl
  Title Human signatures derived from nighttime lights along the Eastern Alpine river network in Austria and Italy Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Society; nightlights; human presence; river network; Strahler order; DMSP-OLS; OLS; DMSP-OLS; Austria; Italy; Eastern Alpine  
  Abstract Understanding how human settlements and economic activities are distributed with reference to the geographical location of streams and rivers is of fundamental relevance for several issues, such as flood risk management, drought management related to increased water demands by human population, fluvial ecosystem services, water pollution and water exploitation. Besides the spatial distribution, the evolution in time of the human presence constitutes an additional key question. This work aims at understanding and analysing the spatial and temporal evolution of human settlements and associated economic activity, derived from nighttime lights, in the Eastern Alpine region. Nightlights, available at a fine spatial resolution and for a 22-year period, constitute an

excellent data base, which allows one to explore in details human signatures. In this experiment, nightlights are associated to five distinct distance-from-river classes. Our results clearly point out an overall enhancement of human presence across the considered distance classes during the last 22 years, though presenting some differences among the study regions. In particular, the river network delineation, by considering different groups of river pixels based on the Strahler order, is found to play a central role in the identification of nightlight spatio-temporal trends.
 
  Address Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica, Ambientale e dei Materiali, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher International Association of Hydrological Sciences Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference 7th International Water Resources Management Conference of ICWRS, 18–20 May 2016, Bochum, Germany  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1432  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Grove, L. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Reducing Acadia's Light Pollution Type Manuscript
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Conservation; Society; Economics; Acadia National Park; Maine; benefit cost analysis; astrotourism; contingent valuation method; dark sky places; dark sky park  
  Abstract Acadia National Park is among the most visited national parks in the United States, attracting millions of people per year. Thousands of those visitors come to the park for “astro-tourism,” as Acadia has become one of the premier stargazing locations on the east coast. There remains, however, the continued threat from light pollution from the surrounding communities that negatively affects Acadia's darkness, contributing to a lesser visitor experience and potentially harming native ecosystems. Although park management and community organizations have engaged in significant efforts to decrease Acadia's nighttime light levels and raise awareness among visitors and locals regarding the importance of darkness, the park still seek to continue to decrease light pollution. This report developed policy options that could help solve the long-term policy goal of decreasing nighttime lighting levels within and around Acadia while also using the International Dark-Sky Association's Dark-Sky Park designation requirements as a reasonable, short-term policy benchmark.

Working within existing organizations, the policy options crafted to address Acadia’s nighttime lighting levels were analyzed both qualitatively through a criteria evaluation and quantitatively through a Benefit Cost Analysis.

The options included 1) the formation of a Darkness Coalition within the League of Towns, 2) a reimagining of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute Dark-Sky Project into the Dark-Sky Taskforce, 3) the creation of a Lighting Consultant position paid through the Friends of Acadia Wild Acadia initiative, and 4) the combination of Coalition and the Taskforce into the League of Towns – Dark-Sky Partnership (LOT-DSP). The report recommends the adoption of Option 4 – the creation of the LOT – DSP. While this option does not provide the greatest estimated monetary net value compared to the Status Quo in the quantitative evaluation, it still provides an estimated benefit of about $105 million over the course of five years and is the strongest option in the qualitative analysis. The LOT – DSP provides the best opportunity for Acadia to achieve legitimate and long-lasting nighttime light level reduction.
 
  Address Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, Garrett Hall, 235 McCormick Road, P.O. Box 400893, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4893 USA; locher.grove(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis  
  Publisher University of Virginia Place of Publication Charlottesville Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1449  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Scheffler, T.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  openurl
  Title Measuring Social Jetlag in Twitter Data Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proceedings of the Tenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2016) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 675-678  
  Keywords Human Health; Sunlight; Society  
  Abstract Social constraints have replaced the natural cycle of light and darkness as the main determinant of wake-up and activity times for many people. In this paper we show how Twitter activity can be used as a source of large-scale, naturally occurring data for the study of circadian rhythm in humans. Our year-long initial study is based on almost 1.5 million observations by over 200,000 users. The progression of the onset of Twitter activity times on free days in the course of the year is consistent with previous survey-based research on wake

times. We show that the difference in wake-up time (implicating lack of sleep) on weekdays compared to Sundays is between 1 hour and over 2 hours depending on the time of year. The data also supports the assertion that Daylight Saving Time greatly disrupts the easing of social jetlag in the Spring transition.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference ICWSM 2016  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1453  
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