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Author Scheffler, T.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  openurl
  Title Measuring Social Jetlag in Twitter Data Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proceedings of the Tenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2016) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 675-678  
  Keywords Human Health; Sunlight; Society  
  Abstract Social constraints have replaced the natural cycle of light and darkness as the main determinant of wake-up and activity times for many people. In this paper we show how Twitter activity can be used as a source of large-scale, naturally occurring data for the study of circadian rhythm in humans. Our year-long initial study is based on almost 1.5 million observations by over 200,000 users. The progression of the onset of Twitter activity times on free days in the course of the year is consistent with previous survey-based research on wake

times. We show that the difference in wake-up time (implicating lack of sleep) on weekdays compared to Sundays is between 1 hour and over 2 hours depending on the time of year. The data also supports the assertion that Daylight Saving Time greatly disrupts the easing of social jetlag in the Spring transition.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference ICWSM 2016  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1453  
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Author Spitschan, M.; Aguirre, G.K.; Brainard, D.H.; Sweeney, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages 26756  
  Keywords Skyglow; Measurements; light pollution; daylight; twilight; sky brightness; spectral irradiance; CIE  
  Abstract The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky.  
  Address Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27272736 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1464  
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Author Da Silva, A.; Valcu, M.; Kempenaers, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioural plasticity in the onset of dawn song under intermittent experimental night lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour  
  Volume 117 Issue (up) Pages 155-165  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The disruption of daily rhythms is one of the most studied ecological consequences of light pollution. Previous work showed that several songbird species initiated dawn song earlier in areas with light pollution. However, the mechanisms underlying this shift are still unknown. Individuals may immediately adjust their timing of singing to the presence of artificial light (behavioural plasticity), but the observed effect may also be due to phenotype-dependent habitat choice, effects of conditions during early life or micro-evolution. The main aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how males of four common passerine species respond to day-to-day variation in the presence of artificial night lighting in terms of the timing of singing. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we manipulated the presence of light throughout the night in a cyclic fashion in several naturally undisturbed forest patches. We show that individuals of all four species immediately and reversibly adjusted their onset of dawn singing in response to artificial light. The effect was strongest in the European robin, but relatively small in the blue tit, the great tit and the blackbird. The effect in the latter two species was smaller than expected from the correlational studies. This may be coincidence (small sample size of this study), but it could also indicate that there are longer-term effects of living in light-polluted urban areas on timing of dawn singing, or that birds use compensatory behaviours such as light avoidance. We found no evidence that our light treatment had carryover effects into the subsequent dark period, but robins progressively advanced their dawn singing during the light treatment.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1467  
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Author Campaign to Protect Rural England url  openurl
  Title Night Blight: Mapping England’s light pollution and dark skies Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing; Artificial light at night; United Kingdom; Great Britain  
  Abstract We can now present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night skies. Detailed interactive maps have been created for England

showing districts, counties, National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) and, at a wider scale, National Character Areas. Besides these, there are high-level maps available for Scotland and Wales, so that we can now

present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night sky.
 
  Address Campaign to Protect Rural England, 5-11 Lavington Street, London SE1 0NZ, United Kingdom; info(at)cpre.org.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Campaign to Protect Rural England Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1468  
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Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Impact of Lighting on Flora and Fauna Type Book Chapter
  Year 2016 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 1-33  
  Keywords Ecology; Lighting; Artificial light at night; ALAN; Plants; Animals; review  
  Abstract Technology, especially artificial light at night (ALAN), often has unexpected impacts on the environment. This chapter addresses both the perception of light by various organisms and the impact of ALAN on flora and fauna. The responses to ALAN are subdivided into the effects of light intensity, color spectra, and duration and timing of illumination. The ways organisms perceive light can be as variable as the habitats they live in. ALAN often interferes with natural light information. It is rarely neutral and has significant impacts beyond human perception. For example, UV light reflection of generative plant parts or the direction of light is used by many organisms as information for foraging, finding spawning sites, or communication. Contemporary outdoor lighting often lacks sustainable planning, even though the protection of species, habitat, and human well-being could be improved by adopting simple technical measures. The increasing use of ALAN with high intensities in the blue part of the spectrum, e.g., fluorescent light and LEDs, is discussed as a critical trend. Blue light is a major circadian signal in higher vertebrates and can substantially impact the orientation of organisms such as numerous insect species. A better understanding of how various types and sources of artificial light, and how organisms perceive ALAN, will be an important step towards more sustainable lighting. Such knowledge is the basis for sustainable lighting planning and the development of solutions to protect biodiversity from the effects of outdoor lighting. Maps that describe the rapid changes in ALAN are urgently needed. In addition, measures are required to reduce the increasing use and intensity of ALAN in more remote areas as signaling thresholds in flora and fauna at night are often close to moonlight intensity and far below streetlight levels.  
  Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany; schroer(at)igb-berlin.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-00295-8 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1470  
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