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Author Bolton, D.; Mayer-Pinto, M.; Clark, G.F.; Dafforn, K.A.; Brassil, W.A.; Becker, A.; Johnston, E.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Coastal urban lighting has ecological consequences for multiple trophic levels under the sea Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 576 Issue (up) Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Urban land and seascapes are increasingly exposed to artificial lighting at night (ALAN), which is a significant source of light pollution. A broad range of ecological effects are associated with ALAN, but the changes to ecological processes remain largely unstudied. Predation is a key ecological process that structures assemblages and responds to natural cycles of light and dark. We investigated the effect of ALAN on fish predatory behaviour, and sessile invertebrate prey assemblages. Over 21days fish and sessile assemblages were exposed to 3 light treatments (Day, Night and ALAN). An array of LED spotlights was installed under a wharf to create the ALAN treatments. We used GoPro cameras to film during the day and ALAN treatments, and a Dual frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON) to film during the night treatments. Fish were most abundant during unlit nights, but were also relatively sedentary. Predatory behaviour was greatest during the day and under ALAN than at night, suggesting that fish are using structures for non-feeding purposes (e.g. shelter) at night, but artificial light dramatically increases their predatory behaviour. Altered predator behaviour corresponded with structural changes to sessile prey assemblages among the experimental lighting treatments. We demonstrate the direct effects of artificial lighting on fish behaviour and the concomitant indirect effects on sessile assemblage structure. Current and future projected use of artificial lights has the potential to significantly affect predator-prey interactions in marine systems by altering habitat use for both predators and prey. However, developments in lighting technology are a promising avenue for mitigation. This is among the first empirical evidence from the marine system on how ALAN can directly alter predation, a fundamental ecosystem process, and have indirect trophic consequences.  
  Address Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Sydney Institute of Marine Sciences, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27780095 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1548  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Chaput, J.-P.; Weippert, M.; LeBlanc, A.G.; Hjorth, M.F.; Michaelsen, K.F.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.; Tremblay, M.S.; Barreira, T.V.; Broyles, S.T.; Fogelholm, M.; Hu, G.; Kuriyan, R.; Kurpad, A.; Lambert, E.V.; Maher, C.; Maia, J.; Matsudo, V.; Olds, T.; Onywera, V.; Sarmiento, O.L.; Standage, M.; Tudor-Locke, C.; Zhao, P.; Sjodin, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Are Children Like Werewolves? Full Moon and Its Association with Sleep and Activity Behaviors in an International Sample of Children Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Frontiers in Pediatrics Abbreviated Journal Front Pediatr  
  Volume 4 Issue (up) Pages 24  
  Keywords Human Health; Moonlight  
  Abstract In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33,710 24-h accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States). Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (+/-4 days; reference), half moon (+/-5-9 days), and new moon (+/-10-14 days) from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and total sedentary time (SED) were monitored over seven consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 h a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min/night shorter during full moon compared to new moon). Differences in MVPA, LPA, and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (<2 min/day difference). There was no difference in the associations between study sites. In conclusion, sleep duration was 1% shorter at full moon compared to new moon, while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable.  
  Address University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-2360 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27047907; PMCID:PMC4805596 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1556  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kang, S.-G.; Yoon, H.-K.; Cho, C.-H.; Kwon, S.; Kang, J.; Park, Y.-M.; Lee, E.; Kim, L.; Lee, H.-J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Decrease in fMRI brain activation during working memory performed after sleeping under 10 lux light Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages 36731  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) when sleeping on functional brain activation during a working-memory tasks. We conducted the brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis on 20 healthy male subjects. All participants slept in a polysomnography laboratory without light exposure on the first and second nights and under a dim-light condition of either 5 or 10 lux on the third night. The fMRI scanning was conducted during n-back tasks after second and third nights. Statistical parametric maps revealed less activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) after exposure to 10-lux light. The brain activity in the right and left IFG areas decreased more during the 2-back task than during the 1- or 0-back task in the 10-lux group. The exposure to 5-lux light had no significant effect on brain activities. The exposure to dLAN might influence the brain function which is related to the cognition.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27827445; PMCID:PMC5101482 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1560  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Peng, C.; Wang, M.; Chen, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spatial Analysis of PAHs in Soils along an Urban-Suburban-Rural Gradient: scale effect, distribution patterns, diffusion and influencing factors Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages 37185  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Spatial statistical methods including Cokriging interpolation, Morans I analysis, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were used for studying the spatial characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in urban, suburban, and rural soils of Beijing. The concentrations of PAHs decreased spatially as the level of urbanization decreased. Generally, PAHs in soil showed two spatial patterns on the regional scale: (1) regional baseline depositions with a radius of 16.5 km related to the level of urbanization and (2) isolated pockets of soil contaminated with PAHs were found up to around 3.5 km from industrial point sources. In the urban areas, soil PAHs showed high spatial heterogeneity on the block scale, which was probably related to vegetation cover, land use, and physical soil disturbance. The distribution of total PAHs in urban blocks was unrelated to the indicators of the intensity of anthropogenic activity, namely population density, light intensity at night, and road density, but was significantly related to the same indicators in the suburban and rural areas. The moving averages of molecular ratios suggested that PAHs in the suburban and rural soils were a mix of local emissions and diffusion from urban areas.  
  Address State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, People's Republic of China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27853179 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1561  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cho, E.; Oh, J.H.; Lee, E.; Do, Y.R.; Kim, E.Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cycles of circadian illuminance are sufficient to entrain and maintain circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 6 Issue (up) Pages 37784  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light. Exposure to 12 h:12 h cycles of white LED light with high and low CIL values but a constant VIL value (conditions hereafter referred to as CH/CL) can entrain behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in flies. Moreover, flies re-entrain to phase shift in the CH/CL cycle. Core-clock proteins are required for the rhythmic behaviors seen with this LED lighting scheme. Taken together, this study provides a guide for designing healthful white LED lights for use at night, and proposes the use of the CIL value for estimating the harmful effects of any light source on organismal health.  
  Address Neuroscience Graduate Program, BK21 Plus Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164 Worldcup-ro, Suwon, 16499, Republic of Korea  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27883065; PMCID:PMC5121609 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1565  
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