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Author Robertson, K.; Booth, D.T.; Limpus, C.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An assessment of 'turtle-friendly' lights on the sea-finding behaviour of loggerhead turtle hatchlings (Caretta caretta) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Wildlife Research Abbreviated Journal Wildl. Res.  
  Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 27  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Context: It is well established that artificial light can disrupt the sea-finding ability of sea turtle hatchlings, and some manufactures are now marketing ‘turtle-friendly’ lights that are supposed to be minimally disruptive to this sea-finding behaviour. However, there have been no studies that have tested whether ‘turtle-friendly’ lights are benign to hatchling sea turtle sea-finding ability.

Aims: We tested two different types of ‘turtle-friendly’ lights (LED amber-light peak intensity 620 nm and LED red-light peak intensity 640 nm) to see whether they are disruptive to the sea-finding ability of eastern-coast Australian loggerhead turtle hatchlings.

Methods: Using standard circular-arena experiments, we assessed the directional preference of newly emerged loggerhead turtle hatchlings from the Woongarra Coast of Queensland, Australia, during different moon phases without artificial lighting and in the presence of ‘turtle-friendly’ lights.

Key results: Contrary to expectations, sea-finding ability of hatchlings was disrupted by the amber lights, particularly in the absence of a moon. The less intense red lights were less disruptive to hatchlings; however, misorientation and disorientation events still occurred when lights were within 4 m of hatchlings. The disruptive impact on sea-finding ability increased with the cumulative impact of multiple lights increasing light intensity.

Conclusions: The ‘turtle-friendly’ lights we used disrupted the sea-finding ability of eastern-coast Australian loggerhead turtle hatchlings, with the most pronounced disruption occurring under moonless conditions.

Implications: The use of amber and red LED lights adjacent to the nesting beaches of loggerhead sea turtles should be managed because this lighting has the potential to disrupt the sea-finding ability of sea turtle hatchlings.
 
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1035-3712 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1413  
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Author Watson, M.J.; Wilson, D.R.; Mennill, D.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic light is associated with increased vocal activity by nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal The Condor  
  Volume 118 Issue 2 Pages 338-344  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Anthropogenic modifications to the natural environment have profound effects on wild animals, through structural changes to natural ecosystems as well as anthropogenic disturbances such as light and noise. For animals that migrate nocturnally, anthropogenic light can interfere with migration routes, flight altitudes, and social activities that accompany migration, such as acoustic communication. We investigated the effect of anthropogenic light on nocturnal migration of birds through the Great Lakes ecosystem. Specifically, we recorded the vocal activity of migrating birds and compared the number of nocturnal flight calls produced above rural areas with ground-level artificial lights compared to nearby areas without lights. We show that more nocturnal flight calls are detected over artificially lit areas. The median number of nocturnal flight calls recorded at sites with artificial lights (31 per night, interquartile range: 15–135) was 3 times higher than at nearby sites without artificial lights (11 per night, interquartile range: 4–39). By contrast, the number of species detected at lit and unlit sites did not differ significantly (artificially lit sites: 6.5 per night, interquartile range: 5.0–8.8; unlit sites: 4.5 per night, interquartile range: 2.0–7.0). We conclude that artificial lighting changes the behavior of nocturnally migrating birds. The increased detections could be a result of ground-level light sources altering bird behavior during migration. For example, birds might have changed their migratory route to pass over lit areas, flown at lower altitudes over lit areas, increased their calling rate over lit areas, or remained longer over lit areas. Our results for ground-level lights correspond to previous findings demonstrating that migratory birds are influenced by lights on tall structures.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0010-5422 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1422  
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Author Yang, Y.; Yu, Y.; Yang, B.; Zhou, H.; Pan, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Physiological responses to daily light exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 24808  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.  
  Address College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27098210 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1424  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Seltmann, S.; Trost, L.; Ter Maat, A.; Gahr, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Natural melatonin fluctuation and its minimally invasive simulation in the zebra finch Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PeerJ Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 4 Issue Pages e1939  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Melatonin is a key hormone in the regulation of circadian rhythms of vertebrates, including songbirds. Understanding diurnal melatonin fluctuations and being able to reverse or simulate natural melatonin levels are critical to investigating the influence of melatonin on various behaviors such as singing in birds. Here we give a detailed overview of natural fluctuations in plasma melatonin concentration throughout the night in the zebra finch. As shown in previous studies, we confirm that “lights off” initiates melatonin production at night in a natural situation. Notably, we find that melatonin levels return to daytime levels as early as two hours prior to the end of the dark-phase in some individuals and 30 min before “lights on” in all animals, suggesting that the presence of light in the morning is not essential for cessation of melatonin production in zebra finches. Thus, the duration of melatonin production seems not to be specified by the length of night and might therefore be less likely to directly couple circadian and annual rhythms. Additionally, we show that natural melatonin levels can be successfully simulated through a combination of light-treatment (daytime levels during subjective night) and the application of melatonin containing skin-cream (nighttime levels during subjective day). Moreover, natural levels and their fluctuation in the transition from day to night can be imitated, enabling the decoupling of the effects of melatonin, for example on neuronal activity, from sleep and circadian rhythmicity. Taken together, our high-resolution profile of natural melatonin levels and manipulation techniques open up new possibilities to answer various melatonin related questions in songbirds.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1425  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Da Silva, A.; Valcu, M.; Kempenaers, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioural plasticity in the onset of dawn song under intermittent experimental night lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour  
  Volume 117 Issue Pages 155-165  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract The disruption of daily rhythms is one of the most studied ecological consequences of light pollution. Previous work showed that several songbird species initiated dawn song earlier in areas with light pollution. However, the mechanisms underlying this shift are still unknown. Individuals may immediately adjust their timing of singing to the presence of artificial light (behavioural plasticity), but the observed effect may also be due to phenotype-dependent habitat choice, effects of conditions during early life or micro-evolution. The main aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how males of four common passerine species respond to day-to-day variation in the presence of artificial night lighting in terms of the timing of singing. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we manipulated the presence of light throughout the night in a cyclic fashion in several naturally undisturbed forest patches. We show that individuals of all four species immediately and reversibly adjusted their onset of dawn singing in response to artificial light. The effect was strongest in the European robin, but relatively small in the blue tit, the great tit and the blackbird. The effect in the latter two species was smaller than expected from the correlational studies. This may be coincidence (small sample size of this study), but it could also indicate that there are longer-term effects of living in light-polluted urban areas on timing of dawn singing, or that birds use compensatory behaviours such as light avoidance. We found no evidence that our light treatment had carryover effects into the subsequent dark period, but robins progressively advanced their dawn singing during the light treatment.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1467  
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