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Author Tähkämö, L.; Räsänen, R.-S.; Halonen, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Life cycle cost comparison of high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires in street lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Abbreviated Journal Int J Life Cycle Assess  
  Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 137-145  
  Keywords (up) Economics; Lighting  
  Abstract Purpose

Cities and municipalities are facing a great challenge in 2015 when the widely used high-pressure mercury lamps are banned from the European Union market. This results to approximately 18 million lamps to be changed to other light source technologies suitable for outdoor lighting. The most probable replacement technologies are high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires. The article provides economic information for the cities and municipalities to use when making the decision on the choice of technology.

Methods

A life cycle cost analysis was conducted for the high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires including the investment costs, operating costs and residual value over 30-year time frame. The investment costs included the purchase prices of all parts, freight and installation costs. The operating costs accounted for the energy and maintenance costs, and the residual value was calculated using the 25 % estimate of the initial purchase price. The approach of the calculation considered only the luminaires to be installed; the scope of the study excluded the previous installations, which may contain any light source technology or be inexistent. The analysis excluded the poles, wiring and other infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis additionally studied six scenarios, in which relevant calculation parameters were changed.

Results and discussion

The life cycle cost analysis of the two road lighting luminaire technologies showed that the HPS luminaire was normally a more economical solution compared to the light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire. The total life cycle costs of the HPS luminaire were 45 % lower than those of the LED luminaire per kilometre. However, the scenarios in the sensitivity analysis indicated that there were circumstances where the cost-efficiency of the LED luminaire was particularly improved. In order for the LED technology to become fully competitive against the HPS technology, several scenarios have to take place simultaneously. The life cycle costs of the LED luminaire were reduced compared to the HPS luminaire by increased electricity price, exclusion of spot replacements, reduced purchase price and modularity of the LED luminaire.

Conclusions

Despite the greater luminous efficacy, the LED luminaire was found to have greater life cycle costs compared to the HPS luminaire. However, the LED technology is expected to become more economical in the future due to the development in luminous efficacy, improved product quality, reduction in the purchase price and the enhanced competition in the LED segment. Despite the unfavourable cost structure, the LED technology offers other benefits, such as lighting controls and colour characteristics.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1725  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Weidmann, N.; Schutte, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using night light emissions for the prediction of local wealth Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Peace Research Abbreviated Journal J Peace Res  
  Volume Issue Pages 0022343316630359  
  Keywords (up) Economics; remote sensing; night lights; spatial prediction  
  Abstract Nighttime illumination can serve as a proxy for economic variables in particular in developing countries, where data are often not available or of poor quality. Existing research has demonstrated this for coarse levels of analytical resolution, such as countries, administrative units or large grid cells. In this article, we conduct the first fine-grained analysis of night lights and wealth in developing countries. The use of large-scale, geo-referenced data from the Demographic and Health Surveys allows us to cover 39 less developed, mostly non-democratic countries with a total sample of more than 34,000 observations at the level of villages or neighborhoods. We show that light emissions are highly accurate predictors of economic wealth estimates even with simple statistical models, both when predicting new locations in a known country and when generating predictions for previously unobserved countries.  
  Address Department of Politics and Public Administration, University of Konstanz, Germany; nils.weidmann(at)uni-konstanz.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1474  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Contel, T.M.; Ferrandis, I.G.; Ferrandis, X.G. url  openurl
  Title Light pollution in natural science textbooks in Spanish secondary education Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education Abbreviated Journal Eur. J. Sci. Math. Ed.  
  Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 129-139  
  Keywords (up) Education; Light pollution, Secondary education, Natural science textbooks, Spanish secondary education curriculum  
  Abstract Light pollution has emerged with the industrial development in recent decades. It is becoming a significant environmental issue for cities today and it will probably become more important in the near future. However, very little research has been carried out on this issue in the field of science teaching, despite there being a general agreement that education has an important contribution to make in the protection of the environment. This research analyses this problem in secondary education, through the official curriculum and textbooks published for the Valencian Region (Spain).  We have based the research on the “Content analysis” method. Light pollution, despite being included in the Spanish compulsory secondary education curriculum, is an issue that is barely touched on in the majority of the first and second year Natural Science textbooks analysed.  
  Address Department of Nursing, Research and Health Care Managemen, Ctatholic University of Valencia “San Vicente Martir”, Valencia, Spain; ignacio.garcia‐ferrandis(at)uv.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2301-251X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1433  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gutierrez-Escolar, A.; Castillo-Martinez, A.; Gomez-Pulido, J.; Gutierrez-Martinez, J.-M.; González-Seco, E.; Stapic, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A review of energy efficiency label of street lighting systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Energy Efficiency Abbreviated Journal Energy Efficiency  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-18  
  Keywords (up) Energy; Energy Efficiency Index; Total Luminous Flux; Energy Efficiency Label; Electronic Ballast; Energy Performance Indicator; Lighting Project; Energy Efficiency Class; Energy Efficiency Level; Road Lighting; Active PowerLighting System; Wind Turbine; Current Energy Efficiency; Luminous Efficacy; Electricity Consumption; Kiviat diagram; Lamp; Light pollution; Pie chart; Dimming luminous flux; review  
  Abstract There are very few countries that have provisions addressing the energy efficiency of the whole street lighting system, such as Spain or the Netherlands. Nevertheless, there is not an agreement about how energy efficiency must be assessed. The Spanish Government contemplates it in the Royal Decree 1890/2008 with the goal of improving energy savings and efficiency. However, this has not obtained the expected results. Nowadays, energy efficiency of this kind of systems is assessed using a label. In the case of Spain, this label only assesses one magnitude. The contributions of this paper are two evaluation systems (kiviat diagram and pie chart) which assess five magnitudes: lamps, energy efficiency index, light pollution, renewable energy contribution, and harness of the luminous flux using dimming. After that, a survey was done to study several subjects: (1) if citizens are aware about the efficiency of street lighting systems, (2) whether the sample of colors used in the label is adequate, and (3) if our proposed systems could replace the current evaluation system. Finally, the paper finishes with the conclusions of the survey.  
  Address Department of Computer Sciences, Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Road Madrid-Barcelona, Km 33.6, Alcala de Henares, 28871, Spain  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1570-6478 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1471  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kaneshi, Y.; Ohta, H.; Morioka, K.; Hayasaka, I.; Uzuki, Y.; Akimoto, T.; Moriichi, A.; Nakagawa, M.; Oishi, Y.; Wakamatsu, H.; Honma, N.; Suma, H.; Sakashita, R.; Tsujimura, S.-I.; Higuchi, S.; Shimokawara, M.; Cho, K.; Minakami, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of light exposure at nighttime on sleep development and body growth of preterm infants Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 21680  
  Keywords (up) Health  
  Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that a light-dark cycle has promoted better sleep development and weight gain in preterm infants than constant light or constant darkness. However, it was unknown whether brief light exposure at night for medical treatment and nursing care would compromise the benefits brought about by such a light-dark cycle. To examine such possibility, we developed a special red LED light with a wavelength of >675 nm which preterm infants cannot perceive. Preterm infants born at <36 weeks' gestational age were randomly assigned for periodic exposure to either white or red LED light at night in a light-dark cycle after transfer from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit to the Growing Care Unit, used for supporting infants as they mature. Activity, nighttime crying and body weight were continuously monitored from enrolment until discharge. No significant difference in rest-activity patterns, nighttime crying, or weight gain was observed between control and experimental groups. The data indicate that nursing care conducted at 3 to 4-hour intervals exposing infants to light for <15 minutes does not prevent the infants from developing circadian rest-activity patterns, or proper body growth as long as the infants are exposed to regular light-dark cycles.  
  Address Department of Obstetrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kitaku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26877166 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1358  
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