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Author Stockl, A.L.; O'Carroll, D.C.; Warrant, E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neural Summation in the Hawkmoth Visual System Extends the Limits of Vision in Dim Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 821-826  
  Keywords Vision; Animals  
  Abstract Most of the world's animals are active in dim light and depend on good vision for the tasks of daily life. Many have evolved visual adaptations that permit a performance superior to that of manmade imaging devices [1]. In insects, a major model visual system, nocturnal species show impressive visual abilities ranging from flight control [2, 3], to color discrimination [4, 5], to navigation using visual landmarks [6-8] or dim celestial compass cues [9, 10]. In addition to optical adaptations that improve their sensitivity in dim light [11], neural summation of light in space and time-which enhances the coarser and slower features of the scene at the expense of noisier finer and faster features-has been suggested to improve sensitivity in theoretical [12-14], anatomical [15-17], and behavioral [18-20] studies. How these summation strategies function neurally is, however, presently unknown. Here, we quantified spatial and temporal summation in the motion vision pathway of a nocturnal hawkmoth. We show that spatial and temporal summation combine supralinearly to substantially increase contrast sensitivity and visual information rate over four decades of light intensity, enabling hawkmoths to see at light levels 100 times dimmer than without summation. Our results reveal how visual motion is calculated neurally in dim light and how spatial and temporal summation improve sensitivity while simultaneously maximizing spatial and temporal resolution, thus extending models of insect motion vision derived predominantly from diurnal flies. Moreover, the summation strategies we have revealed may benefit manmade vision systems optimized for variable light levels [21].  
  Address Department of Biology, University of Lund, Solvegatan 35, 22362 Lund, Sweden  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26948877 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1374  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Duriscoe, D.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Photometric indicators of visual night sky quality derived from all-sky brightness maps Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT  
  Volume 181 Issue Pages 33-45  
  Keywords Skyglow; Instrumentation  
  Abstract Wide angle or fisheye cameras provide a high resolution record of artificial sky glow, which results from the scattering of escaped anthropogenic light by the atmosphere, over the sky vault in the moonless nocturnal environment. Analysis of this record yields important indicators of the extent and severity of light pollution. The following indicators were derived through numerical analysis of all-sky brightness maps: zenithal, average all-sky, median, brightest, and darkest sky brightness. In addition, horizontal and vertical illuminance, resulting from sky brightness were computed. A natural reference condition to which the anthropogenic component may be compared is proposed for each indicator, based upon an iterative analysis of a high resolution natural sky model. All-sky brightness data, calibrated in the V band by photometry of standard stars and converted to luminance, from 406 separate data sets were included in an exploratory analysis. Of these, six locations representing a wide range of severity of impact from artificial sky brightness were selected as examples and examined in detail. All-sky average brightness is the most unbiased indicator of impact to the environment, and is more sensitive and accurate in areas of slight to moderate light pollution impact than zenith brightness. Maximum vertical illuminance provides an excellent indicator of impacts to wilderness character, as does measures of the brightest portions of the sky. Zenith brightness, the workhorse of field campaigns, is compared to the other indicators and found to correlate well with horizontal illuminance, especially at relatively bright sites. The median sky brightness describes a brightness threshold for the upper half of the sky, of importance to telescopic optical astronomy. Numeric indicators, in concert with all-sky brightness maps, provide a complete assessment of visual sky quality at a site.  
  Address U.S. National Park Service, Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division, 351 Pacu Lane, Bishop, CA 93514, USA; dan_duriscoe(at)nps.gov  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ ; IDA @ john @ Serial 1376  
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Author Rybnikova, N.A.; Haim, A.; Portnov, B.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does artificial light-at-night exposure contribute to the worldwide obesity pandemic? Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication International Journal of Obesity (2005) Abbreviated Journal Int J Obes (Lond)  
  Volume 40 Issue 5 Pages 815-824  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Worldwide overweight and obesity rates are on the rise, with about 1 900 billion adults being defined as overweight and about 600 million adults being defined as obese by the World Health Organization (WHO). Increasing exposure to artificial light-at-night (ALAN) may influence body mass, by suppression of melatonin production and disruption of daily rhythms, resulting in physiological or behavioral changes in the human body, and may thus become a driving force behind worldwide overweight and obesity pandemic. METHODS: We analyzed most recent satellite images of night time illumination, available from the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), combining them with country-level data on female and male overweight and obesity prevalence rates, reported by the WHO. The study aims to identify and measure the strength of association between ALAN and country-wide overweight and obesity rates, controlling for per capita GDP, level of urbanization, birth rate, food consumption and regional differences. RESULTS: ALAN emerged as a statistically significant and positive predictor of overweight and obesity (t>1.97; P<0.05), helping to explain, together with other factors, about 70% of the observed variation of overweight and obesity prevalence rates among females and males in more than 80 countries worldwide. Regional differences in the strength of association between ALAN and excessive body mass are also noted. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first population-level study that confirms the results of laboratory research and cohort studies in which ALAN was found to be a contributing factor to excessive body mass in humans.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 23 February 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.255.  
  Address Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Faculty of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0307-0565 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26795746 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1381  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Tian, J.F.; Deng, L.C.; Zhang, X.B.; Lu, X.-M.; Sun, J.J.; Liu, Q.L.; Zhou, Q.; Yan, Z.Z., Xin, Y.; Wang, K.; Jiang, X.-J.; Luo, Z.Q., Yang, J. url  openurl
  Title Optical Observing Conditions at Delingha Station Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication n/a Abbreviated Journal n/a  
  Volume n/a Issue n/a Pages n/a  
  Keywords Skyglow; China; Tibet; SONG; Delingha; Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; Tibetan Plateau  
  Abstract SONG is a global ground based network of 1 meter telescopes for stellar time-domain science, an international collaboration involving many countries across the world. In order to enable a favourable duty cycle, the SONG network plans to create a homogeneous distribution of 4 nodes in each of the northern and southern hemispheres. A natural possibility was building one of the northern nodes in East Asia, preferably on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. During the last decade, a great deal of effort has been invested in searching for high a quality site for ground based astronomy in China, since this has been one of the major concerns for the development of Chinese astronomy. A number of sites on the plateau have been in operation for many years, but most of them are used only for radio astronomy, as well as small optical telescopes for applied astronomy. Several potential sites for large optical instruments have been identified by the plateau site survey, but as yet none of them have been adequately quantitatively characterised. Here we present results from a detailed multi-year study of the Delingha site, which was eventually selected for the SONG-China node. We also describe the site monitoring system that will allow an isolated SONG and 50BiN node to operate safely in an automated mode.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1391  
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Author Bergs, R. openurl 
  Title Exploring the Spatial Economy by Night Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication n/a Abbreviated Journal n/a  
  Volume n/a Issue n/a Pages n/a  
  Keywords Economics; DMSP; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; spatial distribution  
  Abstract Night satellite images may offer an interesting tool to generate socio-economically relevant data and to analyse the evolution of space, e.g. cities or rural areas, and how spatial units interact over time. This paper is just an essay with preliminary ideas for discussion; the approach is explorative-methodological rather than one putting an empirical focus on a defined research item. Empirics discussed in this paper are just various examples collected from tinkering.

The DMSP-OLS images and adequate image analysis software such as ImageJ (in some cases to be complemented by further statistics software) provide a useful perspective for the analysis of spatial change. Since there is a stable and significant correlation between social and economic variables (population density, GDP PPP) and luminosity, such image analyses contain important information on spatial economic development. Analysis of night imagery is certainly not adequate to replace the statistical analysis of regional data, but it is a good tool to confirm and illustrate patterns of spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence over time.
 
  Address PRAC – Bergs & Issa Partnership Co., Bad Soden, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher n/a Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Planung & Forschung Spolicy Research & Consultancy Discussion Paper Series Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN n/a ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1392  
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