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Author Mann, M.; Melaas, E.; Malik, A.
Title Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 8 Issue 9 Pages 711
Keywords Remote Sensing; NPP-VIIRS; VIIRS-DNB; India; South Asia
Abstract Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.
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ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1515
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.
Title Night in a big city. Light festivals as a creative medium used at night and their impact on the authority, significance and prestige of a city Type Book Chapter
Year 2016 Publication The Role of Cultural Institutions and Events in the Marketing of Cities and Regions Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 63–90
Keywords Lighting; Society
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Publisher Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego Place of Publication Łódz, Poland Editor Domanski, T.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2933
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Author Brüning A., Hölker, F., Franke, S., Preuer, T., Kloas, W.
Title Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal
Volume 543 Issue Pages 214-222
Keywords Animals
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1294
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Author Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Diez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernandez, A.; Nievas, M.
Title Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: a dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT
Volume 181 Issue Pages 52-66
Keywords Skyglow; measurements; light pollution; artificial light at night; modeling; Madrid; Spain
Abstract We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the center of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are neccessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population, and ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.
Address Dept. Astrof´ısica y CC. de la Atm´osfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1323
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Author Last, K. S.; Hobbs, L.; Berge, J.; Brierley, A. S.; Cottier, F.
Title Moonlight Drives Ocean-Scale Mass Vertical Migration of Zooplankton during the Arctic Winter Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 244-251
Keywords animals
Abstract In extreme high-latitude marine environments that are without solar illumination in winter, light-mediated patterns of biological migration have historically been considered non-existent [ 1 ]. However, diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton has been shown to occur even during the darkest part of the polar night, when illumination levels are exceptionally low [ 2, 3 ]. This paradox is, as yet, unexplained. Here, we present evidence of an unexpected uniform behavior across the entire Arctic, in fjord, shelf, slope and open sea, where vertical migrations of zooplankton are driven by lunar illumination. A shift from solar-day (24-hr period) to lunar-day (24.8-hr period) vertical migration takes place in winter when the moon rises above the horizon. Further, mass sinking of zooplankton from the surface waters and accumulation at a depth of ∼50 m occurs every 29.5 days in winter, coincident with the periods of full moon. Moonlight may enable predation of zooplankton by carnivorous zooplankters, fish, and birds now known to feed during the polar night [ 4 ]. Although primary production is almost nil at this time, lunar vertical migration (LVM) may facilitate monthly pulses of carbon remineralization, as they occur continuously in illuminated mesopelagic systems [ 5 ], due to community respiration of carnivorous and detritivorous zooplankton. The extent of LVM during the winter suggests that the behavior is highly conserved and adaptive and therefore needs to be considered as “baseline” zooplankton activity in a changing Arctic ocean [ 6–9 ].
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ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1329
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