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Author Kocifaj, M.; Petrzala, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Rapid approach to the quantitative determination of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories: a clear-sky case Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.  
  Volume 462 Issue 3 Pages 2739-2746  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract A zero-order approach to the solving of the radiative transfer equation and a method for obtaining the horizontal diffuse irradiance at night-time are both developed and intended for wide use in numerical predictions of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories. Downward diffuse radiative fluxes are computed with a two-stream approximation, and the data products obtained are useful for scientists who require rapid estimations of illumination levels during the night. The rapid technique presented here is especially important when the entire set of calculations is to be repeated for different lighting technologies and/or radiant intensity distributions with the aim of identifying high-level illuminance/irradiance, the spectral composition of scattered light or other optical properties of diffuse light at the ground level. The model allows for the computation of diffuse horizontal irradiance due to light emissions from ground-based sources with arbitrary spectral compositions. The optical response of a night sky is investigated using the ratio of downward to upward irradiance, R⊥, λ(0). We show that R⊥, λ(0) generally peaks at short wavelengths, thus suggesting that, e.g., the blue light of an LED lamp would make the sky even more bluish. However, this effect can be largely suppressed or even removed with the spectral sensitivity function of the average human eye superimposed on to the lamp spectrum. Basically, blue light scattering dominates at short optical distances, while red light is transmitted for longer distances and illuminates distant places. Computations are performed for unshielded as well as fully shielded lights, while the spectral function R⊥, λ(0) is tabulated to make possible the modelling of various artificial lights, including those not presented here.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1517  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lewanzik, D.; Voigt, C.C.; Minderman, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Transition from conventional to light-emitting diode street lighting changes activity of urban bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 264-271  
  Keywords Animals; Bats  
  Abstract Light pollution is rapidly increasing and can have deleterious effects on biodiversity, yet light types differ in their effect on wildlife. Among the light types used for street lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are expected to become globally predominant within the next few years.

In a large-scale field experiment, we recorded bat activity at 46 street lights for 12 nights each and investigated how the widespread replacement of conventional illuminants by LEDs affects urban bats: we compared bat activity at municipal mercury vapour (MV) street lamps that were replaced by LEDs with control sites that were not changed.

Pipistrellus pipistrellus was the most frequently recorded species; it was 45% less active at LEDs than at MV street lamps, but the activity did not depend on illuminance level. Light type did not affect the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus pygmaeus or bats in the Nyctalus/Eptesicus/Vespertilio (NEV) group, yet the activity of P. nathusii increased with illuminance level. Bats of the genus Myotis increased activity 4·5-fold at LEDs compared with MV lights, but illuminance level had no effect.

Decreased activity of P. pipistrellus, which are considered light tolerant, probably paralleled insect densities around lights. Further, our results suggest that LEDs may be less repelling for light-averse Myotis spp. than MV lights. Accordingly, the transition from conventional lighting techniques to LEDs may greatly alter the anthropogenic impact of artificial light on urban bats and might eventually affect the resilience of urban bat populations.

Synthesis and applications. At light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the competitive advantage – the exclusive ability to forage on insect aggregations at lights – is reduced for light-tolerant bats. Thus, the global spread of LED street lamps might lead to a more natural level of competition between light-tolerant and light-averse bats. This effect could be reinforced if the potential advantages of LEDs over conventional illuminants are applied in practice: choice of spectra with relatively little energy in the short wavelength range; reduced spillover by precisely directing light; dimming during low human activity times; and control by motion sensors. Yet, the potential benefits of LEDs could be negated if low costs foster an overall increase in artificial lighting.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1518  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Choo, G.-H.; Jeong, M.-J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Estimation of nighttime aerosol optical thickness from Suomi-NPP DNB observations over small cities in Korea Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Korean Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Korean Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 73-86  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract In this study, an algorithm to estimate Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) over small cities during nighttime has been developed by using the radiance from artificial light sources in small cities measured from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor's Day/Night Band (DNB) aboard the Suomi-National Polar Partnership (Suomi-NPP) satellite. The algorithm is based on Beer's extinction law with the light sources from the artificial lights over small cities. AOT is retrieved for cloud-free pixels over individual cities, and cloud-screening was conducted by using the measurements from M-bands of VIIRS at infrared wavelengths. The retrieved nighttime AOT is compared with the aerosol products from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra and Aqua satellites. As a result, the correlation coefficients over individual cities range from around 0.6 and 0.7 between the retrieved nighttime AOT and MODIS AOT with Root-Mean-Squared Difference (RMSD) ranged from 0.14 to 0.18. In addition, sensitivity tests were conducted for the factors affecting the nighttime AOT to estimate the range of uncertainty in the nighttime AOT retrievals. The results of this study indicate that it is promising to infer AOT using the DNB measaurements over small cities in Korea at night. After further development and refinement in the future, the developed retrieval algorithm is expected to produce nighttime aerosol information which is not operationally available over Korea.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1225-6161 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1524  
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Author Kang, X.; Jia, L.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Chen, Y.; Shen, X.; Wu, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Long-Term Continuous Light Exposure Affects Body Weight and Blood Glucose Associated with Inflammation in Female Rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Biosciences and Medicines Abbreviated Journal Jbm  
  Volume 04 Issue 09 Pages 11-24  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2327-5081 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1527  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rea, M.S.; Figueiro, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The NICU Lighted Environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews Abbreviated Journal Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews  
  Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 195-202  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Lighting technologies are rapidly evolving, creating many opportunities for good lighting within the NICU. With the widespread adoption of advanced solid-state lighting technologies, lighting no longer needs to be static. Rather, lighting systems can be more easily adjusted to the different and changing visual and non-visual needs of the professional staff, infants and family members throughout the 24-hour day. This paper provides a conceptual framework for defining good lighting in the NICU, recognizing the needs of various constituent groups, each with very different needs from the lighting. Several other papers on the topic of lighting for various constituent groups at different times of the day in the NICU are summarized. Attention is given specifically to the Recommended Standards for Newborn ICU Design, a consensus standard developed by a wide range of experts, to help the reader translate this conceptual framework to practice.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1527-3369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1528  
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