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Author Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Duriscoe, D.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.; Portnov, B.A.; Rybnikova, N.A.; Furgoni, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Science Advances  
  Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages e1600377-e1600377  
  Keywords Skyglow; Conservation; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution—artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world’s land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1466  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Da Silva, A.; Valcu, M.; Kempenaers, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioural plasticity in the onset of dawn song under intermittent experimental night lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour  
  Volume 117 Issue Pages 155-165  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The disruption of daily rhythms is one of the most studied ecological consequences of light pollution. Previous work showed that several songbird species initiated dawn song earlier in areas with light pollution. However, the mechanisms underlying this shift are still unknown. Individuals may immediately adjust their timing of singing to the presence of artificial light (behavioural plasticity), but the observed effect may also be due to phenotype-dependent habitat choice, effects of conditions during early life or micro-evolution. The main aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how males of four common passerine species respond to day-to-day variation in the presence of artificial night lighting in terms of the timing of singing. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we manipulated the presence of light throughout the night in a cyclic fashion in several naturally undisturbed forest patches. We show that individuals of all four species immediately and reversibly adjusted their onset of dawn singing in response to artificial light. The effect was strongest in the European robin, but relatively small in the blue tit, the great tit and the blackbird. The effect in the latter two species was smaller than expected from the correlational studies. This may be coincidence (small sample size of this study), but it could also indicate that there are longer-term effects of living in light-polluted urban areas on timing of dawn singing, or that birds use compensatory behaviours such as light avoidance. We found no evidence that our light treatment had carryover effects into the subsequent dark period, but robins progressively advanced their dawn singing during the light treatment.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1467  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Campaign to Protect Rural England url  openurl
  Title Night Blight: Mapping England’s light pollution and dark skies Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing; Artificial light at night; United Kingdom; Great Britain  
  Abstract We can now present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night skies. Detailed interactive maps have been created for England

showing districts, counties, National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) and, at a wider scale, National Character Areas. Besides these, there are high-level maps available for Scotland and Wales, so that we can now

present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night sky.
 
  Address Campaign to Protect Rural England, 5-11 Lavington Street, London SE1 0NZ, United Kingdom; info(at)cpre.org.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Campaign to Protect Rural England Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1468  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Borniger, J.C.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Photoperiodic Regulation of Behavior: Peromyscus as a Model System Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology  
  Volume 33 Issue 8 Pages 946-948  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Winter and summer present vastly different challenges to animals living outside of the tropics. To survive and reproduce, individuals must anticipate seasonal environmental changes and adjust physiology and behavior accordingly. Photoperiod (day length) offers a relatively ‘noise free’ environmental signal that non-tropical animals use to tell the time of year, and whether winter is approaching or receding. In some cases, photoperiodic signals may be fine-tuned by other proximate cues such as food availability or temperature. The pineal hormone, melatonin, is a primary physiological transducer of the photoperiodic signal. It tracks night length and provokes changes in physiology and behavior at appropriate times of the year. Because of their wide latitudinal distribution, Peromyscus has been well studied in the context of photoperiodic regulation of physiology and behavior. Here, we discuss how photoperiodic signals are transduced by pineal melatonin, how melatonin acts on target tissues, and subsequent consequences for behavior. Using a life-history paradigm involving trade-offs between the immune and reproductive systems, specific emphasis is placed on aggression, metabolism, and cognition. We discuss future directions including examining the effects of light pollution on photoperiodism, genetic manipulations to test the role of specific genes in the photoperiodic response, and using Peromyscus to test evolutionary theories of aging.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1084-9521 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1469  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Impact of Lighting on Flora and Fauna Type Book Chapter
  Year 2016 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-33  
  Keywords Ecology; Lighting; Artificial light at night; ALAN; Plants; Animals; review  
  Abstract Technology, especially artificial light at night (ALAN), often has unexpected impacts on the environment. This chapter addresses both the perception of light by various organisms and the impact of ALAN on flora and fauna. The responses to ALAN are subdivided into the effects of light intensity, color spectra, and duration and timing of illumination. The ways organisms perceive light can be as variable as the habitats they live in. ALAN often interferes with natural light information. It is rarely neutral and has significant impacts beyond human perception. For example, UV light reflection of generative plant parts or the direction of light is used by many organisms as information for foraging, finding spawning sites, or communication. Contemporary outdoor lighting often lacks sustainable planning, even though the protection of species, habitat, and human well-being could be improved by adopting simple technical measures. The increasing use of ALAN with high intensities in the blue part of the spectrum, e.g., fluorescent light and LEDs, is discussed as a critical trend. Blue light is a major circadian signal in higher vertebrates and can substantially impact the orientation of organisms such as numerous insect species. A better understanding of how various types and sources of artificial light, and how organisms perceive ALAN, will be an important step towards more sustainable lighting. Such knowledge is the basis for sustainable lighting planning and the development of solutions to protect biodiversity from the effects of outdoor lighting. Maps that describe the rapid changes in ALAN are urgently needed. In addition, measures are required to reduce the increasing use and intensity of ALAN in more remote areas as signaling thresholds in flora and fauna at night are often close to moonlight intensity and far below streetlight levels.  
  Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany; schroer(at)igb-berlin.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-00295-8 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1470  
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