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Author Lucassen, E. A.; Coomans, C. P.; van Putten, M.; de Kreij, S. R.; van Genugten, J. H.L.T.; Sutorius, R. P.M.; de Rooij, K. E.; van der Velde, M.; Verhoeve, S. L.; Smit, J. W.A.; Löwik, C. W.G.M.; Smits, H. H.; Guigas, B.; Aartsma-Rus, A. M.; Meijer, J. H.
Title Environmental 24-hr Cycles Are Essential for Health Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (up) Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology
Volume 26 Issue 14 Pages 1843-1853
Keywords Animals
Abstract Circadian rhythms are deeply rooted in the biology of virtually all organisms. The pervasive use of artificial lighting in modern society disrupts circadian rhythms and can be detrimental to our health. To investigate the relationship between disrupting circadian rhythmicity and disease, we exposed mice to continuous light (LL) for 24 weeks and measured several major health parameters. Long-term neuronal recordings revealed that 24 weeks of LL reduced rhythmicity in the central circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by 70%. Strikingly, LL exposure also reduced skeletal muscle function (forelimb grip strength, wire hanging duration, and grid hanging duration), caused trabecular bone deterioration, and induced a transient pro-inflammatory state. After the mice were returned to a standard light-dark cycle, the SCN neurons rapidly recovered their normal high-amplitude rhythm, and the aforementioned health parameters returned to normal. These findings strongly suggest that a disrupted circadian rhythm reversibly induces detrimental effects on multiple biological processes.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1480
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Author Stockl, A.L.; O'Carroll, D.C.; Warrant, E.J.
Title Neural Summation in the Hawkmoth Visual System Extends the Limits of Vision in Dim Light Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (up) Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 821-826
Keywords Vision; Animals
Abstract Most of the world's animals are active in dim light and depend on good vision for the tasks of daily life. Many have evolved visual adaptations that permit a performance superior to that of manmade imaging devices [1]. In insects, a major model visual system, nocturnal species show impressive visual abilities ranging from flight control [2, 3], to color discrimination [4, 5], to navigation using visual landmarks [6-8] or dim celestial compass cues [9, 10]. In addition to optical adaptations that improve their sensitivity in dim light [11], neural summation of light in space and time-which enhances the coarser and slower features of the scene at the expense of noisier finer and faster features-has been suggested to improve sensitivity in theoretical [12-14], anatomical [15-17], and behavioral [18-20] studies. How these summation strategies function neurally is, however, presently unknown. Here, we quantified spatial and temporal summation in the motion vision pathway of a nocturnal hawkmoth. We show that spatial and temporal summation combine supralinearly to substantially increase contrast sensitivity and visual information rate over four decades of light intensity, enabling hawkmoths to see at light levels 100 times dimmer than without summation. Our results reveal how visual motion is calculated neurally in dim light and how spatial and temporal summation improve sensitivity while simultaneously maximizing spatial and temporal resolution, thus extending models of insect motion vision derived predominantly from diurnal flies. Moreover, the summation strategies we have revealed may benefit manmade vision systems optimized for variable light levels [21].
Address Department of Biology, University of Lund, Solvegatan 35, 22362 Lund, Sweden
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26948877 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1374
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Author Colwell, C.S.
Title Circadian Rhythms: Does Burning the Midnight Oil Leave You Weak? Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (up) Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 26 Issue 14 Pages R669-71
Keywords Commentary
Abstract A new study shows that nocturnal light exposure rapidly disrupts the central circadian clock as well as reduces motor performance and bone health. These findings provide a striking example of the costs of living in a disrupted light/dark cycle.
Address Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address: CColwell@mednet.ucla.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27458911 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1494
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Author Labuda, M., Pavličková, K., Števová, J.
Title Dark Sky Parks – new impulse for nature tourism development in protected areas (National Park Muranska Planina, Slovakia) Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (up) e-Review of Tourism Research Abbreviated Journal eRTR
Volume 13 Issue 5/6 Pages 536-549
Keywords Society; tourism; astrotourism; sustainable tourism; dark sky parks
Abstract Dark Sky Parks are one of important measures to support nature tourism in the protected

areas. In this paper, we introduce the concept of astro-tourism on the model area of National Park Muranska Planina (Slovakia), which should lead to the establishment of Dark Sky Park and the implementation of measures focused on dark sky protection, i.e. the elimination of light pollution over model area. The concept includes the measurement of night sky brightness, the selection of suitable observational sites and lighting plan. It is very important from the view of ecology, e.g. by the protection of night animal species. On the other hand, these characteristics can be fully used in new tourism concept in that protected area.
Address Department of Landscape Ecology, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; mlabuda(at)fns.uniba.sk,
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Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2246
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Author Straka, T.M.; Lentini, P.E.; Lumsden, L.F.; Wintle, B.A.; van der Ree, R.
Title Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (up) Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 6 Issue 14 Pages 4761-4774
Keywords Ecology, Animals
Abstract Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands that maximize conservation outcomes for urban bats and possibly other wetland-dependent and nocturnal fauna.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1499
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