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Author Fallows, C.; Fallows, M.; Hammerschlag, N.
Title Effects of lunar phase on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Environmental Biology of Fishes Abbreviated Journal Environ Biol Fish
Volume 99 Issue 11 Pages 805-812
Keywords Moonlight; Animals
Abstract Predator-prey relationships can be influenced by environmental conditions, including changes in moon phase and associated lunar illumination. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed underlying the effects of moonlight on predator-prey interactions: the predation risk hypothesis and visual acuity hypothesis. However, few studies have tested these hypotheses during twilight hours or involved large mobile aquatic species. In the present study, we evaluated these hypotheses using data collected over 16 years on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) at sunrise. Data from 1476 natural predation events demonstrated shark attack frequency and seal capture success was significantly higher at sunrise during periods of low (0–10 %) versus high (90–100 %) lunar illumination, which is consistent with the visual acuity hypothesis. We propose that during full moon periods, white sharks at night are at a visual and tactical advantage over seals which are silhouetted at the surface in the moonlight and thus easier to isolate in darkness, while sharks remain camouflaged hunting from below through deep water. However, at sunrise, we hypothesize this advantage shifts to seals as the added lunar illumination, combined with emerging sunlight, may decrease shark stealth and increase the ability of seals to detect and avoid sharks. These finding suggest that lunar effects on predator-prey dynamics can be context specific, likely moderated by visual acuity of predators and prey which may change according to the photoperiod.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0378-1909 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3141
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Author Coughlin, M.; Stubbs, C.; Claver, C.
Title A daytime measurement of the lunar contribution to the night sky brightness in LSST’s ugrizy bands–initial results Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Experimental Astronomy Abbreviated Journal Exp Astron
Volume 41 Issue 3 Pages 393-408
Keywords Moonlight
Abstract We report measurements from which we determine the spatial structure ofthe lunar contribution to night sky brightness, taken at the LSST site on Cerro Pachonin Chile. We use an array of six photodiodes with filters that approximate the LargeSynoptic Survey Telescope’su, g, r, i, z,andybands. We use the sun as a proxy forthe moon, and measure sky brightness as a function of zenith angle of the point onsky, zenith angle of the sun, and angular distance between the sun and the point onsky. We make a correction for the difference between the illumination spectrum of thesun and the moon. Since scattered sunlight totally dominates the daytime sky bright-ness, this technique allows us to cleanly determine the contribution to the (cloudless)night sky from backscattered moonlight, without contamination from other sourcesof night sky brightness. We estimate our uncertainty in the relative lunar night skybrightness vs. zenith and lunar angle to be between 0.3–0.7 mags depending on thepassband. This information is useful in planning the optimal execution of the LSSTsurvey, and perhaps for other astronomical observations as well. Although our pri-mary objective is to map out the angular structure and spectrum of the scattered lightfrom the atmosphere and particulates, we also make an estimate of the expected num-ber of scattered lunar photons per pixel per second in LSST, and find values that arein overall agreement with previous estimates.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0922-6435 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3039
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.
Title Night in a big city. Light festivals as a creative medium used at night and their impact on the authority, significance and prestige of a city Type Book Chapter
Year 2016 Publication The Role of Cultural Institutions and Events in the Marketing of Cities and Regions Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 63–90
Keywords Lighting; Society
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Publisher Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego Place of Publication Łódz, Poland Editor Domanski, T.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2933
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Author Schottstädt, D.
Title Erfahrungen zur Anlockwirkung unterschiedlicher künstlicher Lichtquellen auf Nachtfalter (Lepidoptera: Macroheterocera) Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Sächsische Entomologische Zeitschrift Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue Pages 120-140
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light capture is the most effective method for the qualitative and quantitative collection of moths. This paper gives a brief overview of light traps installations, bulbs and their light spectrum, especially with respect to the ultraviolet radiation. In field ex-periments, various bulbs were used to study for their attractiveness to moths. In practical application, it should be noted that moths fly against the wind towards artificial light sources, they should be positioned so that the wind blows from the light source towards the biotope. For the manual light capture, almost all featured bulbs are suitable. If species of a larger catchment area are to be collected, higher-performance bulbs are recommend-ed, to attract more species and subjects. However, this could lead to more restlessness at the catchment, where considerable proportion of moths would only settle and found around the perimeter of the catchment area. For biotope-related light capture, stand-ardized systems with fluorescent tubes or more recently with LEDs are recommended, to enable comparison of studies. If comparison is not required, energy-saving lamps are recommended instead, because they have a higher light density with the same number of lumens, which entails a higher attracting effect. Mercury vapor and energy saving lamps have almost identical spectrum, but differ in power and its associated radiant energy. When these bulbs are used simultaneously, moths always fly towards the light source with the higher radiant energy. Therefore, it is not necessary to operate an energy-saving lamp or fluorescent tube next to a high-pressure lamp. Likewise, with the combination of su-peractinic, black light fluorescent tubes and energy-saving lamps. The superactinic lamp has a much higher radiation energy in the ultraviolet range and also has wavelengths in the blue range, while the black light lamp emits only certain wavelengths in the UV range.

Zusammenfassung.Der Lichtfang ist die effektivste Methode zur qualitativen und quantitativen Erfassung von Nachtfaltern. Es wird ein kurzer Überblick über Lichtfangan-lagen, Leuchtmittel und deren Lichtspektren, insbesondere mit Bezug auf die ultraviolette Strahlung gegeben. In Feldversuchen wurden verschiedene Leuchtmittel auf ihre Anlock-wirkung auf Nachtfalter verwendet. Im praktischen Einsatz ist dabei zu beachten, dass Nachtfalter gegen den Wind künstliche Lichtquellen anfliegen, so dass diese so aufgestellt werden sollten, dass der Wind vom Licht in den Biotop weht. Für den manuellen Lichtfang sind fast alle vorgestellten Leuchtmittel geeignet. Sollen die Arten eines größeren Einzugs-gebietes erfasst werden, sind leistungsstärkere Leuchtmittel zu empfehlen, mit denen etwas mehr Arten und sehr viel mehr Individuen angelockt werden. Dies geht aber mit mehr Unruhe an der Anlage einher und ein beträchtlicher Anteil der Falter setzt sich in der Umgebung der Anlage nieder, so dass die Umgebung nach Faltern abzusuchen ist. Für den biotopbezogenen Lichtfang sind standardisierte Anlagen mit Leuchtstoffröhren bzw. neuerdings mit LEDs zu empfehlen, um die eigenen Untersuchungen mit anderen vergleichen zu können. Ist dies nicht nötig, sind stattdessen Energiesparlampen empfe-hlenswert, da diese eine höhere Lichtdichte bei gleicher Lumenzahl aufweisen, was eine höhere Anlockwirkung mit sich bringt. Quecksilberdampf- und Energiesparlampen weisen fast identische Spektren auf, unterscheiden sich aber in der Leistung und der damit ver-bundenen Strahlungsenergie. Bei gleichzeitiger Verwendung dieser Leuchtmittel fliegen Nachtfalter immer die Lichtquelle mit der höheren Strahlungsenergie an. Deshalb ist es nicht erforderlich, neben einer Hochdrucklampe eine Energiesparlampe oder Leuchtst-offröhre zu betreiben. Ähnlich verhält es sich mit der Kombination superaktinischer und Schwarzlicht-Leuchtstoffröhren und Energiesparlampen. Die superaktinische Lampe hat eine viel höhere Strahlungsenergie im ultravioletten Bereich und besitzt auch Wellenlän-gen im blauen Bereich, während die Schwarzlichtlampe nur im UV-Bereich bestimmte Wellenlängen emittiert.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2902
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Author Ohayon, M.M.; Milesi, C.
Title Artificial Outdoor Nighttime Lights Associate with Altered Sleep Behavior in the American General Population Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Sleep Abbreviated Journal Sleep
Volume 39 Issue 6 Pages 1311-1320
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Sleep
Abstract STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to explore the associations between outdoor nighttime lights (ONL) and sleep patterns in the human population. METHODS: Cross-sectional telephone study of a representative sample of the general US population age 18 y or older. 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals (participation rate: 83.2%) were interviewed by telephone. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; sleep, mental and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition; International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) Edition). Individuals were geolocated by longitude and latitude. Outdoor nighttime light measurements were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), with nighttime passes taking place between 19:30 and 22:30 local time. Light data were correlated precisely to the geolocation of each participant of the general population sample. RESULTS: Living in areas with greater ONL was associated with delayed bedtime (P < 0.0001) and wake up time (P < 0.0001), shorter sleep duration (P < 0.01), and increased daytime sleepiness (P < 0.0001). Living in areas with greater ONL also increased the dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and quality (P < 0.0001) and the likelihood of having a diagnostic profile congruent with a circadian rhythm disorder (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although they improve the overall safety of people and traffic, nighttime lights in our streets and cities are clearly linked with modifications in human sleep behaviors and also impinge on the daytime functioning of individuals living in areas with greater ONL.
Address NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0161-8105 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27091523; PMCID:PMC4863221 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2551
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