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Author Lewanzik, D.; Voigt, C.C.; Minderman, J.
Title Transition from conventional to light-emitting diode street lighting changes activity of urban bats Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 264-271
Keywords Animals; Bats
Abstract Light pollution is rapidly increasing and can have deleterious effects on biodiversity, yet light types differ in their effect on wildlife. Among the light types used for street lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are expected to become globally predominant within the next few years.

In a large-scale field experiment, we recorded bat activity at 46 street lights for 12 nights each and investigated how the widespread replacement of conventional illuminants by LEDs affects urban bats: we compared bat activity at municipal mercury vapour (MV) street lamps that were replaced by LEDs with control sites that were not changed.

Pipistrellus pipistrellus was the most frequently recorded species; it was 45% less active at LEDs than at MV street lamps, but the activity did not depend on illuminance level. Light type did not affect the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus pygmaeus or bats in the Nyctalus/Eptesicus/Vespertilio (NEV) group, yet the activity of P. nathusii increased with illuminance level. Bats of the genus Myotis increased activity 4·5-fold at LEDs compared with MV lights, but illuminance level had no effect.

Decreased activity of P. pipistrellus, which are considered light tolerant, probably paralleled insect densities around lights. Further, our results suggest that LEDs may be less repelling for light-averse Myotis spp. than MV lights. Accordingly, the transition from conventional lighting techniques to LEDs may greatly alter the anthropogenic impact of artificial light on urban bats and might eventually affect the resilience of urban bat populations.

Synthesis and applications. At light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the competitive advantage – the exclusive ability to forage on insect aggregations at lights – is reduced for light-tolerant bats. Thus, the global spread of LED street lamps might lead to a more natural level of competition between light-tolerant and light-averse bats. This effect could be reinforced if the potential advantages of LEDs over conventional illuminants are applied in practice: choice of spectra with relatively little energy in the short wavelength range; reduced spillover by precisely directing light; dimming during low human activity times; and control by motion sensors. Yet, the potential benefits of LEDs could be negated if low costs foster an overall increase in artificial lighting.
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ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial (down) 1518
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Petrzala, J.
Title Rapid approach to the quantitative determination of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories: a clear-sky case Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.
Volume 462 Issue 3 Pages 2739-2746
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract A zero-order approach to the solving of the radiative transfer equation and a method for obtaining the horizontal diffuse irradiance at night-time are both developed and intended for wide use in numerical predictions of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories. Downward diffuse radiative fluxes are computed with a two-stream approximation, and the data products obtained are useful for scientists who require rapid estimations of illumination levels during the night. The rapid technique presented here is especially important when the entire set of calculations is to be repeated for different lighting technologies and/or radiant intensity distributions with the aim of identifying high-level illuminance/irradiance, the spectral composition of scattered light or other optical properties of diffuse light at the ground level. The model allows for the computation of diffuse horizontal irradiance due to light emissions from ground-based sources with arbitrary spectral compositions. The optical response of a night sky is investigated using the ratio of downward to upward irradiance, R⊥, λ(0). We show that R⊥, λ(0) generally peaks at short wavelengths, thus suggesting that, e.g., the blue light of an LED lamp would make the sky even more bluish. However, this effect can be largely suppressed or even removed with the spectral sensitivity function of the average human eye superimposed on to the lamp spectrum. Basically, blue light scattering dominates at short optical distances, while red light is transmitted for longer distances and illuminates distant places. Computations are performed for unshielded as well as fully shielded lights, while the spectral function R⊥, λ(0) is tabulated to make possible the modelling of various artificial lights, including those not presented here.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial (down) 1517
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Author Luarte, T.; Bonta, C.C.; Silva-Rodriguez, E.A.; Quijon, P.A.; Miranda, C.; Farias, A.A.; Duarte, C.
Title Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut
Volume 218 Issue Pages 1147-1153
Keywords Animals
Abstract The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem.
Address Departamento de Ecologia y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ecologia y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica no. 440, Santiago, Chile; Center for the Study of Multiple-drivers on Marine Socio-ecological Systems (MUSELS), Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile. Electronic address: cristian.duarte@unab.cl
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27589894 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial (down) 1516
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Author Mann, M.; Melaas, E.; Malik, A.
Title Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 8 Issue 9 Pages 711
Keywords Remote Sensing; NPP-VIIRS; VIIRS-DNB; India; South Asia
Abstract Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial (down) 1515
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Author Raap, T.; Casasole, G.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title Early life exposure to artificial light at night affects the physiological condition: An experimental study on the ecophysiology of free-living nestling songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut
Volume 218 Issue Pages 909-914
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognised to be an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife, affecting animal behaviour and physiology. Early life experiences are extremely important for the development, physiological status and health of organisms, and as such, early exposure to artificial light may have detrimental consequences for organism fitness. We experimentally manipulated the light environment of free-living great tit nestlings (Parus major), an important model species in evolutionary and environmental research. Haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx), as important indicators of immunity, health, and physiological condition, were quantified in nestlings at baseline (13 days after hatching) and after a two night exposure to ALAN. We found that ALAN increased Hp and decreased NOx. ALAN may increase stress and oxidative stress and reduce melatonin which could subsequently lead to increased Hp and decreased NOx. Haptoglobin is part of the immune response and mounting an immune response is costly in energy and resources and, trade-offs are likely to occur with other energetically demanding tasks, such as survival or reproduction. Acute inhibition of NOx may have a cascading effect as it also affects other physiological aspects and may negatively affect immunocompetence. The consequences of the observed effects on Hp and NOx remain to be examined. Our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN affects nestlings' physiology during development and early life exposure to ALAN could therefore have long lasting effects throughout adulthood.
Address Department of Biology, Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Group, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27531621 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial (down) 1514
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